Answer Key to
Schoder and Horrigans
is no better way of educating oneself than by learning Ancient Greek. And there
is no better way of learning Ancient Greek than by starting with Homer. Now by far the
best introduction to Homeric Greek is Schoder and Horrigan's two-volume
A Reading Course in Homeric Greek. Both volumes have been republished by
Focus Publishing in a radical revision by L. C. Edwards, the first in
2004, the second (actually an entirely new and much shorter work) in 2008.
Whilst presentationally the 3rd editions are lacklustre compared to the 2nd,
they are a little more practical for teaching.
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|"To read the Latin and Greek authors in their original is a sublime luxury. I thank on my knees him who directed my early education for having put into my possession their rich source of delight. I would not exchange it for anything else which I could then have acquired and have not since acquired."|
Corrigendum: Note (a) should commence: "There are seven vowels in Greek, and these seven vowels comprise five short..."
English derivatives are shown in brackets. NB. The macron indicates a long vowel sound: ē = η not ε, and ō = ω not o.
1. phi-lo-so-phi-ē (philosophy)
2. di-a-lo-gos (dialogue)
3. mi-cro-phō-nos (microphone)
4. phōs-pho-ros (phosphorus)
5. a-na-lu-sis (analysis)
6. pneu-mo-ni-ē (pneumonia)
7. dra-ma-ti-cos (dramatic)
8. ske-le-ton (skeleton)
9. the-a-tron (theatre)
10. bap-tis-ma (baptism)
11. ma-thē-ma-ti-cos (mathematic)
12. po-li-ti-cos (political)
13. a-rō-ma (aroma)
14. am-phi-bi-os (amphibious)
15. stra-tē-gi-cos (strategic)
16. a-gō-ni-ē (agony)
17. ar-chi-tec-tōn (architect)
18. or-chēs-tra (orchestra)
19. me-lan-chō-li-ē (melancholy NB. γ sounds like "n" before γ, κ, ξ, and χ)
20. po-lu-gō-non (polygon)
21. gum-na-si-on (gymnasium)
|"I propose that Classical Greek be restored as the centerpiece of the undergraduate curriculum. The loss of Homeric and Classical Greek from American college life was one of this [20th] century's disasters.. . . The capacity to read Homer's language closely enough to sense the terrifying poetry in some of the lines could serve as a shrewd test for the qualities of mind and character needed in a physician."|
(Dr. Lewis Thomas, in an essay in the New England Journal of Medicine, on pre-medical education)
English derivatives are shown in brackets.
1. ταν-τα-λι-ζω (tantalize)
2. αι-ων (aeon or eon)
3. ασ-τρο-νο-μι-η (astronomy)
4. φα-λαγ-γος (phalanx)
5. λα-βυ-ριν-θος (labyrinth)
6. συλ-λα-βη (syllable)
7. με-τα-φο-ρη (metaphor)
8. γε-ω-με-τρι-η (geometry)
9. μεθ-ο-δος (method see 6b in textbook for explanation of syllable division here)
10. α-ριθ-μη-τι-κος (arithmetic)
11. ε-πι-τα-φι-ον (epitaph)
12. μη-χα-νι-κος (mechanic)
13. μη-τρο-πο-λις (metropolis)
14. συμ-με-τρι-η (symmetry)
15. κα-τα-στρο-φη (catastrophe)
16. δι-α-γραμ-μα (diagram)
17. ε-λασ-τι-κος (elastic)
18. θη-σαυ-ρος (treasury)
19. μο-νο-το-νος (monotonous)
20. τρο-παι-ων (trophy)
21. μο-νο-πω-λη (monopoly)
|"In my opinion, Latin and Greek (especially) are the most valuable subjects in the college curriculum. . . . This Association is opposed to too much science, and it definitely favors and recommends a cultural education, with the Classics as a basis. Personally, I would unhesitatingly accept as a medical student one who is long on the Classics, especially Greek, and short on science. Physicians should be educated, not trained. . . . If the arts colleges will stop their pernicious and (to this Association) objectionable 'premedical' propaganda and stress education, self-education, many of our problems concerned with better scholarship will be solved. . . . The purpose of a college is education, not preparation by 'pre' something or other. A sound, fundamental education is 'pre' to any and every future field of activity."|
(Dr. Fred C. Zappfe, Secretary of the Association of American Medical Colleges)
English derivatives are shown in brackets.
1. βάπτισμα (baptism)
2. διάλογος (dialogue)
3. λωτός (lotus)
4. Κύκλωψ (Cyclops)
5. ἄρωμα (aroma)
6. πολύγωνον (polygon)
7. πολιτικός (political)
8. οἶνος (wine)
9. ῥυθμός (rhythm)
10. γυμνάσιον (gymnasium)
11. θέατρον (theatre)
12. γεωμετριή (geometry)
13. θησαυρός (treasury)
14. φάλαγξ (phalanx)
15. μετα-φορή (metaphor)
|"It was the Iliad that made Greece my paradise. I cannot measure the enjoyment of this splendid epic. When I read the finest passages, I am conscious of a soul-sense that lifts me above the narrow, cramping circumstances of my life. My physical limitations are forgotten; my world lies upward; the length and breadth and sweep of the heavens are mine."|
As per section 11.
αβγδε, ζηθικ, λμνξο, πρστυ, φχψω
|"I began to realize as I read the Greek classics that I couldn't really draw valid inferences from translations. So I began to study Greek. I am having a wonderful time! I didn't intend to get drawn in this far, but the further I get the more enchanting it is."|
(I. F. Stone)
NB. Frs Schoder and Horrigan advocated the Latin system for Greek pronunciation, i.e.: "stress the second-last syllable if it is long, otherwise the third-last." However, the 3rd Revision promotes the pitch accent system instead: "It is standard practice for English speakers today to simply stress the accented syllable of an ancient Greek word." The very different results of these two pronunciation systems can be seen below.
Pitch Accent System
1. How are you,
2. He came· however, it was too late.
3. Who did this; Did you; Or did Jim;
4. Review the following· pronunciation, syllabification, stress, breathings, and punctuation.
|"I have become convinced that of all that human language has produced truly and simply beautiful, I knew nothing before I learned Greek. . . . Without a knowledge of Greek there is no education."|
3. time when
5. indirect object
6. place where
7. indirect object
8. indirect object
10. indirect object
11. means (i.e. by tears) / manner (i.e. tearfully)
13. place where
18. place where
19. association (i.e. fight alongside you) / dative with certain verbs (i.e. fight against you)
1. ἐπί + acc.
2. ὑπό + gen.
3. ἐκ + gen.
4. ἐπί + gen.
5. ἐν + dat.
6. ὑπό + gen.
7. ὑπό + acc.
8. ἀπό + gen.
9. ἐπί + dat.
10. σύν + dat.
11. ὑπό + dat.
12. ὑπό + gen.
|"I would make everyone here learn English; then I would let the clever ones learn Latin as an honour and Greek as a treat."|
(Sir Winston Churchill)
1. of noble
2. in truth
3. under the rocks
4. from a noble soul
5. out of peace
6. to / towards the rocks
7. peace to / for the soul
8. virtues in noble souls
9. for upon the rocks
10. justice and peace
1. (ἐν) εἰρηνῃ
2. ψυχῃ καλῃ
3. ἐπι καλαων πετραων
4. (συν) δικῃ
6. (ἐν) ψυχῃ
|"The careless or the superficial man is not suited either to the practice of medicine or to the conduct of experiments for the elucidation of medical problems. . . . Now there has been found nowhere a better training for the thinking apparatus of the young than the study of Latin and Greek. Carelessness and superficiality are incompatible with any thorough study of them. . . . And the direct value of Greek and Latin, especially of the former, as aids to the exact meaning of medical terms, as shown by their derivatives, is disputed by no one."|
(Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, Dean of the Department of Medicine, University of Michigan)
1. under the sea
2. sweet / pleasant but not beautiful / noble
3. on the earth
4. beautiful / noble souls
5. Truth is a virtue of the soul.
6. by land, indeed, but not by sea
7. Peace is sweet to the soul.
8. There is glory, indeed, but not peace.
9. peace with justice
10. from under the earth
1. ἐπι γαιῃ και ἐπι θαλασσῃ
2. καλη δοξα
3. δοξα ἡδεια.
4. οὐ καλη οὐτε ἡδεια
5. ἀπο θαλασσης ἐπι γαιαν
6. ἀληθειη και δικη ἀρεται ψυχης.
7. βιη μεν, οὐ δε δικη
8. ὑπο καλαων ψυχαων
10. δικη πετρη εἰρηνης.
|"You can't imagine what a thrill it is to read the Odyssey in the original. It makes you feel as if you only had to get on tiptoe and stretch out your hand to touch the stars."|
(Somerset Maugham, in The Razor's Edge)
1. out of a good
2. with a beautiful voice
3. Clearly / indeed, virtues are a necessity of souls.
4. The earth is good.
5. virtues clearly / indeed by necessity
6. Out of truth is the beginning of glory.
7. in the beginning
8. But now there is need of peace.
9. Justice is always good.
10. Thus for good souls there is always peace.
συν δικῃ αἰει ἀναγκη.
3. ἡδεια φωνη θαλασσης.
4. ἀρχαι ἀρετης οὐκ αἰει ἡδειαι.
5. ἀναγκη ἡδεια.
6. ἀρετη ἀρχη δοξης.
7. ἐπι πετραων / πετρῃσι ἐν θαλασσῃ (NB. Both genitive and dative cases can be used with ἐπι to mean "upon".)
8. ψυχαι οὐκ αἰει καλαι.
9. φωνῃ ἡδειῃ
10. δικη ψυχη εἰρηνης.
|"The more I read the Greeks the more I realize that nothing like them has ever appeared in the world since. . . . How can an educated person stay away from the Greeks? I have always been far more interested in them than in science."|
(Albert Einstein, in an interview with The New Yorker)
1. There were
rocks in the sea.
2. according to the truth
3. He was never on the rock.
4. quickly to the beautiful land
5. There was a need of truth.
6. Justice is a necessity of a good peace.
7. For we are now on land.
8. There was peace indeed, but not justice.
9. to / towards the sea
10. Truth is always beautiful / noble.
1. ἀρετη ἐστι φιλη ἀγαθῃσι ψυχῃσι.
2. ἠμεν ὑπο πετρῃσι.
3. ἠεν φωνη ἀπο θαλασσης.
4. κατα γαιαν
5. κατα δικην, οὐ βιην
6. ἐπι γαιῃ ἠσθα.
7. ἀληθειη ἠεν ἐν ἀρχῃ.
8. κατα πετραων
9. αἰει ἐστι δοξα ἐν ἀρετῃ.
10. ἀληθειη ἐστιν ἀρετη.
Corrigendum: The vocabulary item λεγω (I say), has been moved to Lesson 17, but neither the Word Study entry "catalog" nor the Greek-English vocabulary item on p. 418 have been amended to reflect this.
|"Homer lies in sunshine."|
(Ralph Waldo Emerson, Shakespeare)
1. The word of a
wise man is wise.
2. on / by the high rocks
3. the souls (direct object) of men
4. The words of a simple / foolish (man) are never wise.
5. to a friend alone / only
6. by justice alone
7. by the words of physicians
8. a friend to / dear to wise men
9. The physicians were good.
10. God is wise.
2. οὐκ ἠεν φιλος ἀληθειης.
3. νηπιου (ἀνθρωπου)
4. βιῃ ἀληθειης
5. ἰητροι εἰσι καλοι.
6. κατα ὑψηλαων πετραων
7. ἀληθειη ἐστι δοξα σοφου (ἀνθρωπου).
8. δικη και εἰρηνη εἰσι καλαι.
9. θεοι εἰσι φιλοι ἀνθρωποισι.
10. λογοισι σοφων (ἀνθρωπων)
1. Only the wise man is free. (Stoic motto)
2. The physician of grief for men is reason. (Menander, Epigrams. NB. Although not indicated in the Memorize section, λογος can also mean "reason".)
3. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (John 1.1)
4. Glory to God in the high (places), and on earth peace among men of good will. (Luke 2.14)
5. I'm a simple (fellow); I call a tub a tub. (Anon. comic poet)
6. According to truth, only a good man is deserving of honour. (Aristotle, Ethics 1124a)
|"His charm, his variety, his mellowness, his universality were given to Homer alone."|
(Andrew Lang, Homer and the Epic)
1. in a just / honourable
2. high trees (subject or direct object)
3. on account of / for the sake of war
4. It is like / similar to gold.
5. The tree is beautiful.
6. in a just / honourable peace
7. Death is not always bad / evil.
8. for the sake of just / honourable men
9. on account of / for the sake of virtues
10. The trees were beautiful.
2. βιος ἐστι π(τ)ολεμος.
3. κακῳ θανατῳ
4. δενδρεα ἠεν ἀγαθα.
5. π(τ)ολεμοι εἱνεκα εἰρηνης
6. κατα δενδρεου
7. θανατος ἐν π(τ)ολεμῳ
8. ἠμεν αἰει δικαιοι.
10. ὑπο δενδρεων
1. Like (lit. a like thing) is
friendly to like. (Greek proverb equivalent to our "Birds
of a feather flock together".)
2. For gold is not equal to virtue, neither upon the earth nor under the earth. (Plato, Laws 728a)
3. Peace is not for the sake of war, but war is for the sake of peace. (Aristotle, Ethics 1177b)
4. There is no evil (thing) for a good man, neither in life nor in death. (Plato, Apology 41d)
5. Justice and right (lit. a just thing) are beautiful / noble. (Plato, Laws 728c)
βιος μουνου ἀγαθου (ἀνθρωπου)
2. ἀληθειη ἐστι βιος ψυχης.
3. ἐστιν ὑψηλον δενδρεον ἐπι θαλασσῃ.
|"Those who do not possess a classical education are prisoners of their own time. To know and be interested only in the 'now' means being incapable of evaluating or appreciating even that."|
1. The gifts are
small / few.
2. He was friendly to strangers.
3. in a noble heart / spirit
4. by cruel / reckless deeds
5. with both noble and bad / cowardly men
6. Guests / strangers are dear to the gods.
7. on / at / beside a small rock
8. the virtues of noble / excellent souls
9. The beginning is good.
10. The gifts were both beautiful and dear.
ἐσθλῳ / καλῳ ξεινῳ
2. θανατος ἐν / ἐπι σχετλιῃ θαλασσῃ
3. δωρα ὀλιγα μεν, φιλα δε
4. δικαιοισ(ι) ἐργοισ(ι)
5. ἐσθλου ἰητρου
6. ἐπι / προς ὑψηλας πετρας
7. ἀνθρωποι εἰσι σχετλιοι.
8. κακοι αἰει εἰσι νηπιοι.
9. χρυσος ἠεν ἀρχη κακων ἐργων.
10. ἐργα οὐκ ἠεν ἐσθλα / καλα.
1. For both strangers
and beggars are from God. (Odyssey 14.57-8)
2. The gods both exist (lit. are) and are just. (Plato, Laws 887b)
3. Cruel deeds indeed are not dear to the gods, but justice and good deeds (are). (Odyssey 14.83-4)
4. A man is good and wise from experience. (Plato, Laws 811a)
5. Noble is the word of good men, and noble (their) works. (Theognis, Elegies 1167-8)
6. It is a small gift but from the heart. (Greek Anthology 6.227)
1. θανατος εἱνεκα δικης και ἀρετης αἰει ἐστιν ἐσθλος
2. χρυσος ἐστι κακον μεν νηπιοισι (ἀνθρωποισι), ἀγαθον δε δικαιοισι (ἐν) θυμῳ / κατα θυμον (using the Homeric expression "according to the heart").
3. βιος κακοιο ἐστι δη ὁμοιος θανατῳ.
|"The civilization of ancient Greece, carried on in the Hellenistic Era and established for the world by the organizing and administrative genius of the Romans, is a decisive element in the civilization of today. Arts, letters, oratory, philosophy, history writing, are an inheritance from the Greeks. Law, administration, political science, are an inheritance from the Romans. . . . Modern literature is full of allusions to the classics, and one who knows nothing of the great authors of antiquity is cut off from great authors of the modern world as well."|
(Dean Roscoe Pound, Harvard)
1. near the sea
2. of many virtues
3. They themselves are wise.
4. under the very / same rocks
5. out of / from that beginning
6. Virtues themselves are in the soul.
7. in our life
8. on account of the same war
9. Out of those toils is glory.
10. Much fruit is on those trees.
1. ἐν ἡμετεροισι ἐσθλοισι θυμοισι
2. ἐν (ἐ)κεινῃσι πετρῃσι
3. σοφῳ (ἀνθρωπῳ) αὐτῳ
4. αὐτων ἀνθρωπων
5. ὐπο (ἐ)κεινοισι ὑψηλοισι δενδρεοισι
6. (ἐ)κεινη εἰρηνη οὐκ ἠεν δικαιη.
7. ἐγγυς (ἐ)κεινου ὀλιγου ποταμου
8. ἑτερον δενδρεον ἐστιν ὑψηλον.
9. (ἐ)κεινοι εἰσι λογοι σοφου (ἀνθρωπου).
10. πολλοι ἠσαν ποταμοι ἐν ἀυτῃ γαιῃ.
1. For a
friend is another self. (Aristotle, Ethics 1170b)
2. Many things are not always the same. (Plato, Phaedo 78e)
2. λογοι καλοιο φιλοιο εἰσι βιος ψυχῃ.
3. και ὀλιγον δωρον ἀπο ἀγαθου (ἀνθρωπου) ἐστι φιλον, εἰ ἀπο θυμου.
|"The creative mind of ancient Greece was the greatest originating force the world has seen."|
(Sir Richard Jebb)
1. To them
death is not difficult.
2. Those men are wicked; their deeds are evil.
3. His mind was strong.
4. The fruit of these toils / troubles is glory.
5. This river is good for the trees.
6. Near that rock was the treasure.
7. These women are not wicked, but their life is difficult.
8. A good man is a treasure to his friends.
9. Her eyes were beautiful.
10. This is the beginning of that account / speech.
1. καρπος ἡμετερου ὑψηλου δενδρεου ἐστι πολλος.
2. (ἐ)κεινος / ὁ λογος οὐκ ἐστι δοξα ἀλλα ἀληθειη.
3. (ὁ) ἀνθρωπος ἐστι ἀληθειης φιλος, και δη ἐστι και ἡμετερος φιλος.
|"The merely modern man never knows what he is about. A classical education, far from alienating us from our own world, teaches us to discern the amiable traits in it, and the genuine achievements; helping us, amid so many distracting problems, to preserve a certain dignity and balance of mind, together with a sane confidence in the future."|
1. The 3rd aorist and perfect active systems are confined to the active voice.
2. The aorist passive system is the only one confined to the passive voice.
3. The future system lacks the subjunctive, optative (at least in Homeric Greek), and imperative moods.
The perfect middle system lacks the subjunctive and optative moods (though neither in Attic Greek).
4. They each derive their stem from another tense: the imperfect from the present, and the pluperfect from the perfect. Furthermore, they are both confined to the indicative mood.
5. Active: present, future, aorists 1, 2 and 3, and perfect;
Middle: present, future, aorists 1 and 2, and perfect.
Passive: present, future, perfect, and aorist.
6. The future tense in all three voices (active, middle, and passive).
7. The 3rd aorist has no middle.
8. The sixth principal part, i.e. the aorist passive.
9. The 4th principal part cannot be used in the middle and bottom thirds of the map, because it is an exclusively active system.
10. An imperfect can only occur in the Indicative mood.
1. Imperfect indicative active
2. Aorist infinitive active
Aorist indicative active
3. Perfect indicative passive
4. Present participle middle
Aorist indicative passive
Aorist indicative active
5. Present indicative active
6. Aorist imperative active
7. Present imperative active
8. Future indicative active
Present infinitive passive
Imperfect indicative active
9. Pluperfect indicative active
Aorist indicative active
10. Aorist indicative middle
Future indicative passive
Perfect indicative passive
|"It was the colossal triumph of the Greeks and Romans and of the great thinkers of the Middle Ages to sound the depths of almost every problem which human nature has to offer, and to interpret human thought and human aspiration with astounding profundity and insight."|
(Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University)
Corrigendum: It would be useful to clarify in Part b. that contrary-to-fact conditions in present time use the imperfect tense (as per the two examples given), whereas contrary-to-fact conditions in past time (e.g. "You would not have died, if he had come.") use the aorist tense.
1. Do you (sg.)
say this yourself?
2. He does not know his own friend.
3. Those men were bearing / bringing a stone.
4. If you (sg.) had not spoken, I / they would not have known.
5. You (pl.) would not be learning the truth, if he were not dying. (NB. As the imperfect is used here, this is a contrary-to-fact condition in present time, not in past time, so do not translate, "You would not have learned the truth, if he had not died.")
6. Virtue brings happiness / prosperity.
7. Are / were you always sleeping?
8. Even the good die.
9. Diseases were bringing death.
10. Our deeds are not shameful.
2. χρυσος οὐκ αἰει φερει ὀλβον.
3. βροτοι / θνητοι οὐ γιγνωσκουσι πολλα (many things).
4. εἰ μη θνησκεν, οὐκ ἀν / κεν εὑδεν.
5. εἰ κακον ἠεν, οὐκ ἀν το φιλεομεν.
6. ἀνθρωποι φιλεουσι χρυσον και θησαυρους.
7. κρατερος νοος γιγνωσκει ἀληθειην.
8. λεγε, γιγνωσκω, γιγνωσκω.
9. χρονος φερει ἀγαθα τε και κακα (good and bad things).
10. ὁραομεν πολλους λιθους ἐν (ἐ)κεινῳ / τῳ ποταμῳ.
Corrigenda: Vocabulary items: (i) ἐχθρος is used as a substantive, not an adjective, in Reading 1; it means enemy. (ii) νέος should not be listed here at all; its rightful place is in Section 168, Lesson 26.
1. Wise men learn many things indeed from their enemies. (Aristophanes,
2. God always leads similar characters together (lit. "the like one to the like one"). (Odyssey 17.218)
3. The eye of God sleeps not, but is near men in (their) toils / troubles. (Stobaeus, Anthology)
4. For toil, as they say, is the beginning of glory. (Euripides, Fragment)
5. Bad friends bear bad fruit. (Menander, Epigrams)
|"What, then, is a classic, if it be not a book that forever delights, inspires and surprises in which, and in ourselves by its help, we make new discoveries every day? What book has so warmly embosomed itself in the mind and memory of men as the Iliad?|
(James Russell Lowell)
1. Let us always
tell the truth.
2. We sleep in order that we may not die.
3. He loves justice in order that he may have happiness / prosperity.
4. Let us indeed bear (i.e. put up with) difficult things.
5. I speak in order that you (pl.) may learn.
6. These things indeed they were doing, in order that they may now have glory.
7. Let me speak in order that you (sg.) may know.
8. He is dying in order that you yourselves may have life.
9. Let us not hide the truth.
10. They bear toils in order that they may have gold.
1. ἀγωμεν ἐσθλον βιον.
2. κευθω θησαυρον ἱνα / ὁπως / ὀφρα / ὡς μη (τον) ὁραῃ.
3. παρεχει καρπον ἱνα κρατεροι ὠμεν.
4. φερωμεν τηνδε χαλεπην νουσον.
5. θνησκουσιν ὁπως μη θνησκῃς.
6. δικην αἰει ἐχωμεν.
7. εἰ ἀληθειην γιγνωσκομεν, μη την κευθωμεν.
8. φιλεωμεν φιλους (ἡμετερους) ἀπο θυμου.
9. μανθανομεν ὀφρα νοος ἡμετερος ᾐ κρατερος.
10. μη ῥεζωμεν κακα μηδε (see Reading 1 for the use of μηδε) ἐργα πονηρα.
1. Let us love not in word nor in tongue, but in work and in truth. In
this way we clearly know that we are of (lit. out of) the truth. (1 John 3.18-19)
2. I do these things in order that he may have glory among men. (Odyssey 1.95, adapted)
3. Let us indeed do so, since thus God leads. (Plato, Apology 54e)
4. He speaks, and does not hide (it) in his mind, in order that I myself (f.) may also know. (Iliad 1.363)
5. For the gods supplied an enduring heart / spirit to men. (Iliad 24.49)
1. οὐκ ἀν το ῥεζον, εἰ γιγνωσκον
ὁτι ἠεν κακον. (NB.
(i) Render this sentence as a present contrary-to-fact
condition, as the aorist tense is not introduced until Lesson 35. (ii) As the accusative and infinitive construction is not
introduced until Lesson 20,
use the ὁτι construction seen in
2. πολλαι νουσοι φερουσι θανατον βροτοισι / θνητοισι.
3. και εἰ χαλεπον ἠεν, το κε λεγε / ἐννεπε. (NB. Note (i) to question 1 above applies here as well. Translate as though the exercise read: "Even if it were difficult, he would be saying it.")
"And as the prince of poets, Homer, sung long since."
(Samuel Butler, Hudibras)
1. May I never
2. I / they hid the gold in order that you (sg.) might not see it.
3. May we always have happiness / prosperity.
4. He was eating in order that he might not die.
5. If only I might have an easy life.
6. He was coming in order to see the river.
7. We brought (impf.) fruits in order that you (pl.) might eat.
8. May we learn the words of noble men.
9. He was doing many difficult things in order to have prosperity.
10. We have our eyes in order that we may see.
καρπον ὁπως ἐσθιοιμεν.
(NB. Retaining καρπος in the singular is perfectly satisfactory, as it can be
2. ῥεζοιμεν / ποιεοιμεν αἰει ἐσθλα.
3. φοιταε ἱνα ποταμον ὁραοι.
4. εἰ / εἰθε / εἰ γαρ φιλεοι (ἐ)κεινα.
5. νηπιοι εὑδον, ὁπως μη μανθανοιεν.
6. μη (ἐ)κεινο ἐννεποις (sg.) / ἐννεποιτε (pl.).
7. κευθετε καρπον ἱνα μη (τον) ἐσθιοιμεν;
8. μη ποτε αδικεοις.
9. φερον και ἑτερους πονους, ὀφρα μη θνησκοιεν.
10. μανθανοιμι αὐτας ἀληθειας.
1. May I never
have a beautiful thing (that is) unknown to a friend. (Callimachus, Fragment
2. But may a man hold in silence the gifts of the gods. (Odyssey 18.142)
3. But diseases come to men spontaneous(ly) and bring many ills to mortals. And they roam (back and forth) in silence, since they do not have a voice. (Hesiod, Works and Days 102-4)
4. A good man indeed brings forth good out of the good treasure of his heart, but the wicked man (brings forth) wickedness out of (his) wicked (treasure). (Matthew 12.35)
5. For in misfortunes (lit. bad things) mortals quickly grow old. (Odyssey 19.360)
1. νηπιοι εὑδουσιν ὁπως μη μανθανωσι χαλεπα.
2. εἰ τοδε κελευει, (το) ποιεωμεν ὡς φιλῳ.
3. ἀνθρωποι οἱ ἐχουσιν ἐσθλον νοον, διωκουσιν ἀληθειην και δικην, ὀφρα μη ποτε ἀδικεωσιν. (NB. Use the pronoun ὁ, ἡ, το as the relative (see Section 78a), as neither relative pronouns proper nor participles have been introduced yet.)
"Learn Greek: it is the language of wisdom."
(George Bernard Shaw)
Corrigendum: It is not stated which negative should be used for (a) complementary infinitives and (b) noun clause infinitives. The 2nd Revision contained this advice: "The negative of the infinitive is μη, except in the accusative and infinitive construction, where it is οὐ."
1. I wish to
learn many things.
2. I say that the beginning is good.
3. Never do (pl.) wrong.
4. Those men / people were saying that the tree was dying.
5. Do not think (sg.) shameful things in (your) heart.
6. He says that she is now coming.
7. A fool wishes both to have his fruit and eat it.
8. You see (ind.) / look at (impt.) the trees and rocks along(side) the river.
9. I wish always to live as a just man.
10. He considers those base men to be hiding (the) treasure.
1. αἰει ἐθελομεν (impf.) ἐσθιειν.
2. μη ποτε ἐθελωμεν φιλον ἀδικεειν / ἀδικεμεν(αι).
3. λεγε / ἐννεπε τας φερειν / φερεμεν(αι) χρυσον και θησαυρον. (NB. γυνη (woman) should not be used here as it is not introduced until Lesson 45. Use the pronoun ὁ, ἡ, το instead.)
4. λεγει / ἐννεπει εἰναι / ἐμμεν(αι) ῥηιδιον μεν ἀδικεειν / ἀδικεμεν(αι), χαλεπον δε κευθειν / κευθεμεν(αι) πονηρα ἐργα.
5. ζωειν / ζωεμεν(αι) ἐν εἰρηνῃ και δικῃ ἐστιν ἀγαθον.
6. νοος ἡμετερος νοεοι ἀληθειην.
7. λεγουσι σε εἰναι / ἐμμεν(αι) δικαιον (m.) / δικαιην (f.). (NB. The second person pronoun must be used here, even though it is not introduced until Lesson 33.)
8. λεγε / ἐννεπε ἱνα πολλοι γιγνωσκωσιν. (NB. The text should indicate that the singular is expected.)
9. φιλον ἀδικεειν / ἀδικεμεν(αι) ἐστι πονηρον και νηπιον.
10. μανθανωμεν παρα ἐσθλων (ἀνθρωπων) μη ποτε ἀδικεειν / ἀδικεμεν(αι). (NB. Use μη with the infinitive except in the accusative and infinitive construction.)
1. Socrates says that many men live to eat; but he himself ate in order to
live. (Xenophon, Memorabilia)
2. It is difficult to do, but easy to command. (Philemon, Fragment)
3. It is good, not to do no wrong, but not even to wish to do wrong. (Democritus, Fragment)
φοιταον ἱνα ὁραοιεν
δενδρεα και πετρας
2. φιλεοιμεν και ποιεοιμεν αὐτα.
3. δικαια ἐργα αἰει ποιεε / ῥεζε , ὁπως αἰει ζωοι ἐν νοοισι βροτων / θνητων.
"Greek and Latin are not 'dead' languages. They are the vigorous grand-parents of the languages we must use in the present world. Every man's mastery of his English speech is easier, and his writing is smoother and more nearly precise, if he knows Greek."
(Editorial in the Richmond, Vancouver News Leader)
Corrigendum: The future of πιπτω should read πεσεομαι.
1. Mortals wish
to have good things of all sorts.
2. The work of justice is peace. (Motto of Pius XII: "Opus iustitiae pax.")
3. May I not even seem to be cruel / pitiless.
4. Hasten (impt. sg.) / he was hastening (impf.) towards the sea.
5. Many (men) were present, in order that they might learn.
6. The physician commands (you) to do these things, that you may have a strong life.
7. He said that this rock is falling into the river.
8. He would not be dying, if he were not missing (his step) and falling. (NB. Do not translate as a past contrary-to-fact condition, even though such a translation would sound better.)
9. Let us teach others to love (men) of all sorts.
10. Do not hasten (pl.), lest you fall.
11. Wise men consider that virtue brings glory.
1. εἰ ἐθελεις ἐχεμεν ὀλβον, ποιεε ἐσθλα.
2. εἰ φευγε ὀμβρον, ἀν σπευδε .
3. ἀληθειη τρεφει ἡμετερον νοον.
4. λεγω ψυχας ἀνθρωπων ἐμμεν ἀθανατας.
5. ἐσθιωμεν ἱνα ζωωμεν.
6. εἰ νομιζον / φρονεον παντοια, οὐ κεν ἁμαρτανον.
7. χρονος διδασκει βροτους |ἀγαθους τε και κακους / ἀγαθον τε και κακον|. (NB. This exercise is ambiguous, as the words "good and bad" could either be understood adjectivally (qualifying "mortals") or substantively.)
8. μη φευγε πονον, ὡς μη δοκεῃς ἐμμεναι κακος.
9. αἰει ζωοιμεν.
10. μουνοι νηπιοι καλα οὐ φιλεουσι.
1. And no doubt
you seem to be brave and strong, because you associate with few
and cowardly (lit. not brave) men. (Odyssey 18.381-2)
2. For it is shameful for a wise man to err. (Aeschylus, Prometheus 1039)
3. For time does not teach (one) to have understanding, but both a good rearing and a soul. (Democritus, Fragment)
4. The happiness of man is life (lived) according to mind and virtue; for these things especially constitute (lit. are) man. (Aristotle, Ethics 1178a)
5. To fall twice on the same stone is shameful. (Greek proverb)
6. Peace nourishes the farmer well even among rocks (i.e. on rocky ground), but war (nourishes him) badly even on the plain. (Menander, Fragment)
7. Make haste (sg.) slowly. (Suetonius, Augustus 25)
1. ἀναγκη ἐστι μανθανειν παντοια,
ὀφρα ζωωμεν συν ἀνθρωποισι κατα δικην και
ἀληθειην. (NB. χρη cannot be used
here as its introduction has been postponed to Lesson 38.)
2. γιγνωσκομεν ψυχην ἐμμεν ἀθανατην, ἡμετερῳ τε νοῳ σοφων τε λογοις.
3. μη ἐθελωμεν δοκεεμεν ἐσθλοι και ἀγαθοι, ἀλλα εἰναι, ὀφρα φιλοι ἡμετεροι ὠσι πολλοι.
"After trying many substitutes, we shall have to fall back on the fact that in Greek and Latin we possess languages unequalled for organic structure and exquisite precision, and literatures which, because they reached perfection, cannot become obsolete. . . . The Classics include certain specific things which are unique in the world and without which culture is, and always must be, incomplete.
(J. W. Mackail)
1. By toils / troubles
alone are many things learned.
2. Mortals are always pursuing happiness for themselves.
3. Fruits were brought to our neighbours.
4. A physician does not ask gold for himself, but happiness for others.
5. By good deeds virtue increases (itself) / grows.
6. We are known by our friends.
7. The river turned (itself) near the rocks.
8. The mind is pleased with / enjoys truth.
9. Are you fighting against good neighbours? (NB. μαχομαι takes an object in the dative case)
10. Many things are not perceived even by the wise.
1. θησαυρος κευθετο
2. ἡδομην δωροισιν.
3. σοφοι οὐν διδασκονται παντοια.
4. λεγεαι ἀγαθος ἐμμεν.
5. λιθοι λαμβανοντο βιῃ και φεροντο προς θαλασσαν.
6. κακος (ἀνθρωπος) ὐπο πολλων διωκετο.
7. ἡδομεθα τῳδε δωρῳ.
8. μετα ὀμβρον, ποταμοι ἀεξονται.
9. τρεφωμεν ψυχας ἡμετερας ἀληθειῃ και δικῃ.
10. ἡδεαι / ἡδεσθε της φωνῃ;
1. God, who takes pleasure in the just and not in the unjust, sees men
and is near (to them). (Menander, Fragment. NB. The relative pronoun ὅς,
though not presented until Lesson 26, is given amongst the vocabulary items
2. Egypt is said to be the gift of the River Nile. (Herodotus, History 2.5. NB. This relates to Egypt's rich alluvial soil, deposited by the Nile's annual floods.)
3. You (pl.) ask and do not get because you ask badly for yourselves. (James 4.3)
4. For not even the gods fight against necessity. (Simonides, Lyrics 5.21, Bergk)
5. Virtue grows among the wise and among the just of men, (just) as a tree under the influence of the rain; and there is a manifold need for friendly men. (Pindar, Nemean Odes 8.40-42)
6. For not quickly is the mind of the immortal gods turned. (Odyssey 3.147)
1. σπευδωμεν οὐν μανθανειν παντοια
καλα ἐργα, και ἀπο σχετλιων φευγειν.
2. λαμβανετε χρυσον και κευθετε (ἐν) γαιῃ, ὀφρα μη ἀρχη ᾐ πολεμοιο μετα φιλοισιν.
3. εἰ ἐθελες ἀεξεμεν βιον ψυχης, ῥεζες ἀν μουνον το ἐστι δικαιον και ἐσθλον.
"A former student of mine had gone into business and was in the habit of bringing a Homer or a Vergil in his pocket to the office. His colleagues twitted him: there might be some sense in learning modern languages, but what was the use of this Greek and Latin? 'No use, thank God', he replied. Perhaps he went too far, but all the same he was right. The value of a classical education does not lie in its immediate usefulness. It has a much higher aim than any vocational purpose: the training of the mind and character to meet life and its problems, and the filling of the mind, as Plato has it, 'with breezes blowing from pleasant places.'"
(Cyril Bailey, Oxford)
Corrigendum: Note: For "Perfect middle" read "Pluperfect middle".
Corrigendum: The aorist of ἀνεχομαι should read ἀνεσχομην, not the active forms presented in the text.
1. Let us not
hate (our) companions / comrades, lest we also be hated.
2. May you (sg.) endure difficult things, so that one day (ποτὲ) you may have for yourself (ἔχηαι is middle) beautiful things.
3. He was fighting in order that he might not be taken / captured.
4. Let us always pursue excellent / noble things.
5. May there be both a true and just peace / May the peace become both true and just. (NB. Two meanings possible.)
6. Rain falls to the earth in order that trees may grow.
7. May we always take pleasure in those men / things.
8. Base men hide (themselves) in order that they may not be seen.
9. I was enduring many things, in order that I might become wise.
10. May you (pl.) never be turned (i.e. deflected) from the truth by the words of the foolish.
11. Prosperity increases, since they were just.
1. τρεφωμεν (act.) / τρεφωμεθα (mid.) νοους ἡμετερους ἀγαθοισιν.
2. ἐσθιομεν και πινομεν ὀφρα κρατεροι γιγνωμεθα.
3. νουσον ἀνεχοιτο ὡς ἀγαθος (ἀνθρωπος).
4. φευγον, ὁπως μη ὁραοιατο.
5. οὐ τοδε φερες ὀφρα ἐσθιοιτο;
6. κευθετε θησαυρον ἐν πετρῃσι, ὡς μη λαμβανηται.
7. αἰει μαχ(ε)οιμην εἱνεκα ἀληθειης και δικης, λεγε / ἐννεπε.
8. ἐθελε θνησκειν, ὀφρα μη λεγοιτο ἐμμεν κακος.
9. θυμοι ἡμετεροι ἡδοιατο ἀγαθοισι, ὡς ὀφθαλμοι (ἡμετεροι) καλοισιν.
10. μαχ(ε)ωμεθα και θνησκωμεν ὡς ἀγαθοι (ἀνθρωποι).
1. The black
earth drinks the rain, and the trees drink the earth; the sea drinks the
rivers, and the sun (drinks) the sea; please endure (it) therefore, O comrades,
if I myself also wish to drink. (Anacreontic, No. 21, Edmonds)
2. Hasten not (sg.) to be rich, lest you quickly become a beggar. (Menander, Epigrams 358)
3. This is not difficult to flee death. But to flee base men and base things, this indeed is difficult. (Plato, Apology 39b)
1. πολλοι (μεν) ἡδονται ἀληθειῃ και καλοισιν· πολλοι δε
νομιζουσιν / νοεουσι βιον
ἐμμεν ἐσθιειν και πινειν.
2. ἠελιος λεγεται ὑπο νηπιων πινειν ἐκ ποταμων και θαλασσης.
3. μαχ(ε)ετο ἐν πολεμῳ, ὡς ἐν εἰρηνῃ ζωοιμεν και θνησκοιμεν.
"I believe that a classical education is of the utmost importance in rounding out one's intellectual development. I feel very strongly that the current tendency to evaluate education only in terms of the resultant pay envelope is tremendously fallacious. I am constantly scandalized by the number of men who hold college degrees whom I would classify as uneducated."
(President of a large Detroit bank, in an address before the Economic Club of Detroit)
Corrigendum: The particle τοί would best read τοι, as enclitics are rarely seen with an accent.
1. Do not seize these things of ours. (NB. The middle of λαμβανω is
translated "seize, grasp" rather than the more wordy "take for oneself".)
2. He says that many men are being sent.
3. I suppose he wishes to be set free, so that he might roam (back and forth).
4. Did you (sg.) intend to send your guest?
5. Do not flee (pl.), but endure.
6. They were fighting for (the sake of) (their) life.
7. Be good / brave while your colleague is away.
8. Be pleased (infinitive as imperative) then with these things, since you yourself brought (them).
9. Do not turn (sg.), lest you fall.
10. The fruits were about to be taken from the trees, but a storm came, and they fell to the ground / earth.
11. They are able to endure many toils / troubles.
ἀπεισιν, κευθεο /
2. μισεεσθαι κακον ἐστι.
3. λαμβανοντο βιῃ.
4. δυνατοι νυν ἐστε μαχ(ε)εσθαι;
5. δοκεει ἀνεχεσθαι ἀγαθα τε και κακα (the plural is preferable to the singular here) θυμῳ καλῳ.
6. ἀγαθα και καλα ποιεετο ὑπο ἑταιρων σων.
7. ἐθελεις τοι διδασκεσθαι.
8. ἐννεπε σους ἑταιρους διωκεσθαι ἐν πολεμῳ.
9. ἀνεχεσθε πονους, ὀφρα πελητε / πελησθε (anticipatory subjunctive) κρατεροι θυμῳ.
10. εἰθε μη μελλοιμεν πεμπεσθαι εἰς κεινην γαιαν.
Corrigendum: The vocabulary item μιμνησκω means "I remind". It is the middle μιμνησκομαι which means "I am mindful of".
1. Be (sg.) mindful of
(your) friends, both (those) who are present and (those) who are absent.
2. Never, you see, make an evil man a friendly companion for yourself, but always flee him even as (you would) a bad harbour. (Theognis, Elegies 113-4)
3. Do not live as though you were going to live for ever. Death is at hand; while you are living, while you are able, become good. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations 4.17)
4. Yet, since the immortal gods sent this trouble, endure (it), and grieve not in your heart (note the Homeric expression κατα θυμον). (Iliad 24.547-9)
1. κεινοι ἐθελουσι
ὀφρα σοφοι γιγνωνται / πελωσι / πελωνται.
2. ὁδε σοφος ἀνεχετο πονους πολλους χαλεπους τε, ἱνα πελοι / πελοιτο κρατερος (τε) και δικαιος.
3. μαχ(ε)ωμεθα ὡς ἀγαθοι, λεγε, ὀφρα φιλεωμεθα ὑπο πολλων.
"I have gone back to Greek literature with a passion quite astonishing to myself. . . . I felt as if I had never known before that intellectual enjoyment is. . . . I think myself very fortunate in having been able to return to these great masters while still in the full vigor of life and when my taste and judgement are mature. . . . I had no high opinion of Thucydides ten years ago. I have now been reading him with a mind accustomed to historical researches and to political affairs; and I am astonished at my own former blindness, and at his greatness."
1. You (sg.) learn / ascertain
many things by your eyes.
2. The foolish fear lest the sun should fall to the earth.
3. Let us do (it) quickly, since time hastens.
4. Do you consider this temple to be holy / sacred?
5. Do not at least ask foolish things.
6. He commanded (his) companions to come so that they might fight.
7. The noble man both is and seems to be wise.
8. May you (pl.) never fear to have friends of all sorts.
9. They were fighting in order to save (their) comrades.
10. I teach and I reply, in order that you (pl.) may learn.
2. ὁραεις την;
3. λαμβανετε κεινους λιθους και φερετε προς ποταμον.
4. οὐτε γαια οὐτε θαλασσα αἰει ἀυτη πελεται / αὐται πελονται.
5. δενδρεα ἀεξετο ὀρθα ὐψηλα τε.
6. πευθομεθα ὁπως μη γιγνωμεθα / πελωμεν / πελωμεθα νηπιοι.
7. πινων, μη πιπτε εἰς ποταμον.
8. εἰ ἐθελεις δοξαν ἐχεμεν, ἀνεχεο / ἀνεχευ χαλεπα.
9. εἰρηνη ἱκανοι, καρπος δικης ἀληθειης τε.
10. μη μαχοισθε, ἀλλα φιλοι γιγνεσθε (command) / γιγνοισθε (wish).
Corrigendum: In Reading 4 read δειδε (active voice) instead of δειδεο (middle voice). This error may be due to the fact that the actual verb used in Apocalypse 1:18 is in the middle voice: φοβου.
1. Clearly you (sg.) endured many ills in your heart. (Iliad
2. A good tree produces fine fruits, but a worthless one produces worthless fruits. (Matthew 7.17)
3. By his soul a man is able to flee evil, and to pursue and obtain (lit. take) good. (Plato, Laws 728d)
4. Do not fear; I am the first and the last. I was dead, and now I live for ever. (Apocalypse 1.17-18)
5. Do you not know that you are the temple of God? But the temple of God is holy. (1 Cor 3.16-17)
6. A wise man carries around his goods in his soul. (Menander, Epigrams 404)
Corrigendum: In Exercise 1 read "these truths" instead of "those these truths".
2. κακοι μεν δειδουσι θανατον, ἱεροις δε δοκεει ἀγαθος και βιου ἀρχη ἀθανατου.
3. ὀλιγα γιγνωσκεις· μανθανε και ταδε, ὀφρα ἐν σοφοις λεγειν ᾐς / πεληαι δυνατος.
"Greek is the language that has us most in bondage, the desire for which constantly lures us back. First there is its compactness of expression. . . . Every ounce of fat has been pared off, leaving the flesh firm. Then, no language can move more quickly, dancing, all alive, and yet controlled. Then there are the words themselves so clear, so hard, so intense, that to speak plainly yet fittingly, without blurring the outline and clouding the depths, Greek is the only expression."
(Virginia Woolf, in The Common Reader)
Corrigendum: The feminine genitive singular version of the relative pronoun should have a rough breathing, not a smooth one, i.e. ἡς not ἠς.
1. I will
inquire into / learn those things which I do not know.
2. (Those) who do noble deeds will become noble.
3. Many mortals, to whom God sends disease, will die.
4. You (sg.) will have toils / troubles, yet also glory.
5. We mortals shall not in any way flee / escape death.
6. He / she says his / her brothers will come.
7. He is going to see / look at the sky out of which the rain will fall. (ΝΒ. The verb μελλω is normally followed by the future infinitive, as here.)
8. How shall I save my life? he / she asked.
9. You will certainly never know much (lit. many things).
10. Come, and with your own eyes you will see the sea.
11. These men considered / thought that the holy temple would never be destroyed (future passive infinitive).
12. I hate the food which you (sg.) are about / going to eat. (NB. See note to question 7. The future of ἐσθιω has the middle form ἐδομαι Lesson 19.)
1. κελευε. ποιησομεν τὰ
/ ἅ λεγεις.
2. βροτοι οὐ ποτε θανατον φευξονται.
3. μελλει ληψεσθαι χρυσον, ἀλλα αὐτος ληψεται. (NB. ληψεται, used here in the passive voice, is necessarily ambiguous, as the future active employs the identical middle-passive form.)
4. ὀρθη δικη οὐ ποτε τρεψεται ἀπο ἐργων κακων.
5. ἐμος κασιγνητος, τον / ὅν διωκες / διωκετε, ληψεται τονδε θησαυρον και κευσει.
6. πιπτει ὀμβρος· ποταμοι οὐν αἰψα ἀεξησονται.
7. οὐ γιγνωσκω, ἀλλα πευσομαι.
8. πολλα ἐστιν τα / ἅ βροτοι οὐ ποτε μαθησομεθα.
9. σιτον οἰσει τον / ὅν ἐδομεθα.
10. κακοι (ἀνθρωποι), οἵ οὐ ποτε εἰσι σοφοι, δικην αἰει δεισονται.
11. μελλει ἀδικησειν ἀνθρωπον τον / ὅν φιλεω.
Corrigendum: Vocabulary item νέος, -η, -ον (young, new) should appear here rather than in Section 95, Lesson 17.
1. He whom the gods love dies young. (Menander, Fragment)
2. You who were once far from God, now (you) are near, in Christ. For He Himself is our peace. (Ephesians 2.13)
3. Heaven and earth will pass (away), but My words will never pass (away). (Matthew 24.35)
4. What (indeed) is beautiful is dear. But what is not beautiful is not dear. (Theognis, Elegies 17)
5. Our soul is immortal and will never perish. (Plato, Republic 608d)
6. I have at least this marvellous good / blessing, by which I am saved (i.e. which is my salvation); for I am not ashamed to learn, but I inquire and I ask, and I love him who replies. (Plato, Hippias Minor 372c)
1. παρελευσομεθα ποταμον,
ὁ / ὅς τρεπεται ἐγγυς
(ἐ)κειν(α)ων / ταωνδε πετραων και ἐρχεται
2. ζωη χαλεπη μεν ἐστι, πολλα δε ἀγαθα ἀνθρωποις παρεχει οἵς / τοισιν αἰει ἡδομεθα.
3. κρατερος ὀμβρος, ὁ / ὅς πιπτει προς γαιαν ἐξ οὐρανου, αἰει ἀπολεσει πολλα ἀνθρωπων ἐργα.
Corrigendum: The Word Study entry "homily" belongs to Section 129, Lesson 21, where it pick ups on ὁμιλεω, "I associate with".
"In the Odyssey we have the triumph of narrative: the clearest and at the same time the most romantic story of the fortunes of men and women."
(Virginia Woolf, The Common Reader)
Corrigendum: πολιι should be included as a further form of the dative singular of πολις, thus rounding off the endings based on the stem πολι-.
1. They say
that he is a strong man.
2. Let us show the sea to the boy / child.
3. Each city rears all sorts of men.
4. Kings love justice and just men.
5. Truth will always be loved by wise men.
6. Each (man) lives according to his nature.
7. The measure of men's deeds is virtue.
8. Fathers supply many gifts to good boys / children.
9. To each man surely (his) life is sweet.
10. Either peace or war will always supply troubles for kings.
1. λεγωμεν ἀνακτι
(τα) ἅ ἡμετεροι ἑταιροι ὁραον.
2. ἑκαστον ἀεξεται προς μετρον ἑης φυσιος.
3. μουνος κακος ληψεται σιτον ἀπο παιδων.
4. πολις σωσεται ὑπο κρατερων (ἀνδρων).
5. φαινεται δικαιος ἐμμεναι, ἐστι δε σχετλιος.
6. ἱκανουσι / ἐρχονται, ὀφρα φαινωσι παιδεσσι χρυσον.
7. ἀνερι ἑκαστῳ θανατος ποτε ἐλευσεται.
8. φαινοιμεν φυσιν ἡμετερην ἐργοισι (ἡμετεροισι).
9. ἀνερες / ἀνδρες φαινοισθε, μη παιδες.
10. ὁραεις ὀμβρον ὅς πιπει μετα δενδρεοισιν;
Corrigenda: The vocabulary item πολιτικον, -η, -ον should read πολιτικος, -η, -ον.
The vocabulary list should indicate that, when the adjective ζωός is used in the neuter as a substantive, it means "animal".
1. Old men are
children twice / a second time. (Menander, Fragment)
2. The character of a man is known from (his) speech. (Menander, Epigrams 26)
3. Do not say that good men die. (Callimachus, Epigrams 11)
4. Man is by nature a social / political animal. (Aristotle, Politics 1253a)
5. Only time reveals the just man. (Sophocles, Fragment)
6. There were many men (indeed), but few (real) men. (Herodotus, History 7.210)
7. Each (man) will get his wages according to his labour; for we are God's co-operators / co-workers. (1 Corinthians 4.9)
1. ὀμβρος κρατερος,
ὅς ἐρχεται ἐξ οὐρανου, ἀπολεσει καρπους τε
2. ἐλευσομαι οὐν προς σον κασιγνητον και αἰτησω χρυσον, τοῦ / οὕ ἀναγκην ἑξω / σχησω ἱνα ζωω.
3. ἡσεται δη δωροις, τὰ / ἅ φανεεται σα ἒμμεν, οὐχ ἡμετερα.
"We are all Greeks. Our laws, our literature, our arts have their root in Greece. But for Greece, Rome the instructor, the conqueror, or the metropolis of our ancestors would have spread no illumination with her arms, and we might still have been savages and idolaters. . . . The human form and the human mind attained to a perfection in Greece which has impressed its image on those faultless productions whose very fragments are the despair of modern art; and it has sent forth impulses which cannot cease, through a thousand channels of manifest or imperceptible operation, to ennoble and delight mankind until the extinction of the race."
(Shelley, introduction to Hellas)
1. Let us not
love a man's possessions / wealth, but the man himself.
2. The foolish children wish to wander / roam through the fire.
3. We reveal (our) mind to men by (our) words.
4. In the heart of the wicked man are hidden cruel deeds.
5. I shall hasten to save my brother and children from the fire.
6. Verily not length of life, but virtue brings glory.
7. From deeds will a man know the truth.
8. Diseases bring death to the bodies of mortals, but not to (their) souls.
9. By the light of the sun eyes are able to see.
10. Where there is wealth, there is also trouble.
1. ψυχη παρεχει ζωην σωματι.
2. χρηματα (ἐστιν) ἀνηρ / ἀνθρωπος, λεγει νηπιος.
3. κατα ποταμον σπευδομεν ὁπως φευγοιμεν ἀνακτα.
4. ἀρετη αἰει ἀεξοιτο ἐν ψυχῃ σῃ και κηρι.
5. φαει πυρος δενδρεα πολλα ὁραετο.
6. λεγε τονδε νηον, ὅς ἐστι χρημα θεου, εἰναι οὐν ἱερον.
7. πραγματα / ἐργα αἰσχρα φαινει πονηρον νοον και κηρ.
8. κεινο φαος ὁμοιον ἠεν πυρι ὅ πιπτει ἐν οὐρανῳ.
9. ἐθελον λαμβανεσθαι ξεινοιο χρηματα.
10. πολλα μανθανομεν ἐκ λογων φιλων ἡμετερων.
1. From a bad
beginning comes a bad end. (Euripides, Fragment)
2. And Joseph was handsome in appearance and exceedingly beautiful in face. (Genesis 39.6, LXX)
3. For where your treasure is, there also is your heart. (Matthew 6.21)
4. From the smoke into the very fire. (Lucian, Summoning of the Ghosts 4 Cp. "From the frying-pan into the fire".)
5. But time brings (lit. leads) the truth to light. (Greek proverb)
6. For to wretched /worthless mortals wealth comes to be life / the soul. (Hesiod, Works and Days 686)
7. Each man through his deeds is noble or wicked. (Apollodorus)
8. The measure of life is nobleness, not length of years (lit. time). (Plutarch, Moralia)
9. Reasons / discourses are to (lit. in) the soul exactly what beauty (is) to (lit. in) the body. (Aristides, Orations NB. περ is an intensive particle, accentuating the preceding word.)
σπευδον προς ὑψηλον
λεγετο τῇ κευθεσθαι.
2. ποιησω ἅ ἀναξ κελευει, ἐσθλος γαρ ἐστιν.
3. αὐτῃ ἑῃ φυσιι, ἀνθρωπος ἐθελει μανθανειν ἀληθειην, ὁπως ἑος νοος ζωῃ και ἀεξηται· ἀληθειη γαρ ἐστι νοοιο σιτος.
"In the army, there is always a dearth of good leadership. Character is essential to good leadership, and mental discipline is essential to character. It is my opinion that Latin, Greek, and mathematics have never been displaced as the greatest producers of mental capacity and discipline and therefore the most effective moulders of character and leadership. I feel very strongly about our present neglect of the classics, and I hope to see a revival."
(Col. Benjamin W. Venable, of the Army General Staff)
Corrigenda: The participle table on p. 84 misaligns two of the four alternative dative plurals: λουουσι in the fourth column should appear in the third column, and λουσουσι in the fifth column should appear in the fourth.
On p. 85, the heading for the third type of participle should read PERF. ACT., not AOR. ACT.
1. Learning true things supplies pleasure to the wise.
/ Learning supplies true pleasure to the wise. (NB. ἀληθέα could be either n.
acc. pl. or f. acc. sg. Hence the two solutions.)
2. I will do this of course with a willing / eager spirit.
3. Happy the man who is able to save his possessions from both fire and storm.
4. The soul of a worthy / good man will live forever with the blessed.
5. Speak the winged words which you have in (your) heart.
6. Worthy things are judged by worthy men.
7. That king from whom my brother is fleeing even injured his own girl.
8. Not by pleasant words is the truth revealed / does truth appear.
9. They reveal the happy / blessed man who seized the possessions.
10. Do not (pl.) always choose the pleasant, but (rather) what is worthy.
1. κεινο δενδρεον φερει ἡδυν καρπον.
2. λεγε φωνην ἀληθεος φιλου ἐμμεναι αἰει ἡδειαν και χρηστην / ἀγαθην.
3. αἱρεοντο θνησκειν, ἱνα ἐχοιεν δοξαν ἐν ζωουσιν.
4. ὅς ἡδονην φιλεει, πτεροεν φιλεει, ὅ αἰψα ἀπολλυεται.
5. γιγνωσκω σον ἑταιρον ἐλευσεσθαι προφρονα.
6. ἑκαστος ἑταιρων ἐμων ἀνηρ ἐστιν ἀγαθος τε χρηστος τε.
7. ταδε ἐστι δωρα ἀνακτι |ὅς ἐστι φιλος / ἐοντι φιλῳ| κασιγνητου ἐμου. (NB. Prior to the 3rd revision, the student was advised to use a participle for "who is".)
8. οὐ δοκεον λογοι ἐμμεν κακων |χρυσον ἡμετερον αἱρησοντων / οἵ μελλον αἱρησειν χρυσον ἡμετερον|.
9. ἐλπω / ἐλπομαι αἱρεεσθαι ἀληθειας ἡδονας. (NB. ἐλπω / ἐλπομαι, "I hope", is not introduced until Lesson 40).
10. δικη πτεροεσσα ἐστι, και διωκει θνητους κακα ποιεοντας / ῥεζοντας.
Corrigenda: Vocabulary items: (i) ἀλλοφυλλοι should read ἀλλοφυλοι; (ii) θεοειδης should not have [m.] shown against it as though it were a noun.
1. This earth
holds contains Platos body (indeed), but his godlike soul is among the blessed.
(Speusippus, Poem 1, Edmonds)
2. For truth (lit. a true thing) is never refuted. (Plato, Gorgias 473b)
3. A worthy man judges each thing (or, to retain the plural form, say "all individual things") rightly, and in each the truth appears to him. But many others err on account of pleasure; for the pleasant, though not always being a good, they choose as a good. And they flee pain as an evil. Therefore, only the worthy man sees what is true in each thing. (Aristotle, Ethics 1113a)
4. Oaths are not the guarantee of a man, but man (is the guarantee) of (his) oaths. (Aeschylus, Fragment 394, Nauck)
5. And a strong man came (forth) from the foreigners battle line; his name (lit. the name to him) was Goliath, from Gath. His height was four cubits and a span (genitive of extent; see p. 10). (1 Kings 17.4, LXX)
1. τῶν / (ἐ)κεινων δενδρεων πολλα πεσεεται δια ὀμβρους,
πολλα δε πυρι ἀπολεσεται·
αὐταρ ἑτερα ἀεξησεται τῃ ἠεν.
2. δειδομεν μη μελλωσι μαχησεσθαι (fut. infin. after μελλω) ἡμετεροις χρηστοις πλησιοις. (NB. πλησιος is used as a substantive here.)
"In ancient Athens there was an intellectual ferment, a passion for the finest works of art; so that the average Athenian citizen was as competent a critic of drama, architecture, sculpture, as the average American citizen is of professional baseball."
(Wm. Lyon Phelps)
Corrigenda: Paragraph 2c: The verb λυω (I loose / release) was introduced in Lesson 16, but the special meaning of the middle of this verb (i.e. λυομαι) has not been revealed. It means "I ransom".
Paragraph 3: When ἀκουω denotes sense perception, it takes (i) an accusative of the thing(s) heard (e.g. ἀκουω ἐπεα = I hear the words) and (ii) a genitive of the person(s) heard (e.g. ἀκουω ἀνακτος = I hear the king).
1. All men
wish both to live and to be happy.
2. There is no one who does not love his own country.
3. All these fruits are from this one tree (genitive of source; see p. 9).
4. If you (sg.) are not able to take the whole for yourself (middle voice), at least choose half.
5. War makes trial of a mans virtue / manliness.
6. Do you see this rock falling into the river?
7. For all mortals diseases are difficult to bear.
8. Please show (pl.) that gift of mine to no one else.
9. The life of all souls is immortal, but the body dies.
10. We hear that those base men are in all the cities.
11. She was coming to (her) fatherland to test / make trial of the king.
12. He was doing this whilst drinking.
13. I hate these men (who are / because they are) injuring my friend.
14. Were they not supplying gifts (participle used as condition; hence the negative μη), they would not now be fleeing.
1. παντεσσι / πασι ἀνθρωποισιν ἠελιος
ὁμοιος δοκεει ἐμμεν πυρι ἐν οὐρανῳ.
2. ἡμισυ παντος ἐργου ἀρχη ἐστιν.
3. οὐδενι ὁραοντι ἀπο ποταμου δοκεει ἡδε πετρη ὑψηλη (εἰναι).
4. οὐχ ὁραεις καλον ἐμμεν πατριδα ἡμετερην νυν σωζειν;
5. πειραωμεν παντος σιτοιο ὅν / τον λεγει τῃ ἐμμεναι.
6. ταδε ἐστι δωρα ἀνακτι, φιλῳ κασιγνητου ἐμου ἐοντι.
7. θνησκειν εἱνεκα σης πατριδος ἡδυ μεν οὐκ ἐστιν, ἐσθλον δε ἐστιν.
8. ἀναξ ἐρχεται ὀφρα ὁραῃ παιδας ἑου κασιγνητου.
9. παντων ἀνθρωπων μουνοι δικαιοι και ἀγαθοι ἀληθεα ὀλβον ἐχουσιν.
10. ἠελιος λεγετο ἐμμεν φυσιος ὀφθαλμος, παντα ὁραων.
11. νοος ἀνθρωπου εἰς θανατον πιπτοντος αἰψα φρονεει / νομιζει πολλα.
12. κεινη μουνη ἐστι θαλασσα πασης γαιης ἥν οὐ γιγνωσκει.
13. θνητοι / βροτοι περ ἐοντες παντες (ἀνθρωποι) , πολλοι πειραουσιν αἰει ζωειν.
14. φοιταων πολλα ὁραον.
1. One man is no
man. (Greek maxim Cp. "In unity there is
2. (In) having friends he considered that he had treasures. (Greek proverb)
3. Verily the beginning is half of the whole. (Greek proverb Cp. "Well begun is half done." Note that the adjectives ἡμισυ and παντος are both used substantively in the neuter.)
4. By fleeing death a man pursues it. (Democritus, Fragment)
5. It is impossible for a man attempting many things to do them all well. (Xenophon NB. πειραω is often used in the middle voice with the same sense as the active.)
6. Not on bread alone does (a) man live, but on every word coming out through the mouth of God. (Matthew 4.4)
7. Work is no disgrace, but idleness is a disgrace. (Hesiod, Works and Days 311)
8. All things are good for noble men. (Greek proverb)
9. No god is unfriendly to men. (Plato, Theaetetus 151d)
10. The whole earth is a fatherland for the wise man. (Thales, Fragment)
11. The whole of life is a stage. (Greek Anthology 10.72 Cp. All the worlds a stage..., As You Like It 2.7)
12. I grow old constantly learning (lit. teaching myself) many things. (Solon, Poem 18)
1. σοφῳ (ἀνθρωπῳ)
κρινοντι θνητων ἐργα
, οὐ παντα πραγματα
χρηστα, πολλα δε δοκεει
2. νυν χρονος ἐστι διδασκειν παντας (ἀνθρωπους) πολεμον, και δικαιον περ ἐοντα, εἰναι ἀρχην πολλων κακων πατριδι τε και πασῃ γαιῃ.
3. ἡδοναι, πτεροεσσαι ἐουσαι, οὐκ εἰσιν ἀληθης ὀλβος, τον / ὅν μουνη ἀρετη και καλος βιος δυνατοι εἰσι παρεχειν.
4. φαος πυρος ἐγγυς θαλασσης ἐστιν ἡδυ (το) ὁραοντι ἀπο ταωνδε ὑψηλαων πετραων τῃ νυν εἰμεν.
1. (Do) nothing
in excess. (Greek proverb, quoted by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1389b4)
2. To a wise man nothing is foreign. (Antisthenes, quoted by Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 6.12)
3. He to whom there is not always one and the same goal in life, that man is not able to be one and the same through the whole of life. (Antoninus i.e. inconsistent objectives beget inconsistent behaviour).
4. Socrates said that the gods know all things. (Xenophon, Recollections of Socrates 1.1.9 NB. ἐφη, not explained, is the 3rd person singular of the 2nd aorist of φημι, I speak.)
5. We men do not live for (lit. through) much time, but little; but the soul is immortal and lives ageless / undecaying for (lit. through) all time. (Phocylides, Sayings 114-5)
6. We know that for men who love God all things work together for (lit. towards) good. (Romans 8.28)
7. Clearly truth is the first of all good things for the gods and of all things for men. (Plato, Laws 730c)
8. Ah, Solon, Solon, you Greeks are always children, and no Greek is an old man; for you are all young in your souls. (Plato, Timaeus 22b)
9. But Zeus sees the end / object of all things. (Solon, Fragment 13.17)
10. For our true country / place of citizenship is in Heaven / the heavens. (Philippians 3.20)
11. For all mortals conscience is a god. (Menander, Epigrams 654)
12. Philosophy is lifes pilot / navigator. (Motto of Phi Beta Kappa fraternity)
13. Keeping silent, God brings all things to completion. (Menander, Fragment 818)
14. From the earth all things come into being, and unto the earth all things are brought to their end. (Xenophanes, On Nature 27)
15. Time brings all hidden things to light. (Menander, Epigrams 592)
16. And we men think foolish things, knowing nothing; but the gods accomplish all things according to their own mind. (Theognis, Elegies 141-2)
17. Gold is blood and life for mortals. (Antiphanes, Fragment)
18. But all men have need of the gods. (Odyssey 3.48)
19. Under every stone sleeps a scorpion. (Greek proverb)
20. All things grow old under (the influence of) time. (Aristotle, Physics 221a31)
21. Nor is any mortal happy, but wretched are all of mortals whom the sun sees. (Solon, Poem 18 NB. the double negative οὐδε. . . οὐδεις strengthens rather than cancels. In addition to "worthless, base, wicked", πονηρος can also mean "in a wretched, toilsome state"; cp. πονεομαι.)
22. Bad associations (i.e. bad company) destroy good characters. (Menander, Epigrams 738)
23. Mortals, you see, do not hold possessions as (exclusively) their own. (Euripides, Phoenissae 555)
24. All character is (formed) through habit. (Plato, Laws 792e)
25. To have friends is not only a necessity but it is also a noble thing; for we all praise affectionate men. (Aristotle, Ethics 1155a)
κατα ἑην φυσιν.
2. βιος ὁμοιος ἐστι πολεμῳ· φαινει (γαρ) ἀνδρα ἐμμεναι ἤ ἀγαθον ἤ κακον.
3. μαχ(ε)ωμεθα, λεγε, παντι θυμῳ, ὀφρα παιδες ἡμετεροι ἐχωνται ἀληθεα εἰρηνην.
4. εἰ μη το διδαξε, πῶς ἀν μανθανομεν φιλεεμεν παντας ἑτερους ἀνθρωπους;
5. αἱρεεσθε τα ἐθελετε, φερον γαρ παντα ἱνα ἐσθιοιτο.
6. αὐταρ αὐτῳ κεινῳ χρονῳ ἐγγυς που ἠμεν πετρης τῃ / ἱνα θησαυρος ἠεν.
7. παρεξουσι / παρασχησουσι σῳ κασιγνητῳ σιτον παντοιον, ὡς δωρον προς ἀνακτος.
8. μη ποτε δις τρεποιμην ἀπο ἀληθειης φωνῃ νηπιων.
9. αἰτεοντες περ μουνον (το / ὅ ἐστι) δικαιον, ἁμαρτανουσιν του / τοιο εἱνεκα οὗ ἀναξ τους πεμπεν.
10. μουνοι κρατεροι ἀνδρες δυνατοι εἰσιν οὑτως ἀνεχεσθαι τα θυμῳ μισεουσιν.
11. οὐκ ὁραομεν χρηματα αἱρεοντας.
12. ἡδονην διωκοντες, ἡδεα φιλεεουσιν.
1. pres. act. ind. 2 sg. you are away
2. fut. mid.-pass. ind. 3 pl. they will fear (mid.) / they will be feared (pass.)
3. 1 decl. f. gen. pl. of pleasures
4. pres. mid.-pass opt. 3 sg. may he ask (mid.) / may it be asked (pass.)
5. impf. act. ind. 1 sg. since I was away
6. 3 decl. n. nom./acc. sg. that winged thing
7. pres. act. ptc. m./n. dat. sg. to one being present
8. pres. mid.-pass. ptc. f. dat. pl. to them feeding themselves (mid.) / to them being fed (pass.)
9. pres. act. subj. 1 sg. in order that I may be
10. 2 decl. m. gen. pl. of sweet fruits
11. aor. act. ptc., m./n. dat. pl. to them having loosed
12. pres. act. ptc. f. gen. sg. of her being
13. pres. act. subj. 1 pl. let us lead
14. 1 decl. f. acc. sg. life
15. pres. act. subj. 2 pl. in order that you may be
16. pres. act. opt. 2 sg. may you not do wrong
17. impf. mid.-pass. ind. 1 sg. I was loosing for myself (mid.) / I was being loosed (pass.)
18. pres. act. ind. 2 sg. are you present?
19. pres. act. ptc. f. nom. pl. they (f.) loosing
20. 2 decl. m. gen. sg. of death
21. pres. act. subj. 3 pl. in order that they may be
22. pres. act. ptc. m./n. gen. sg. of him / it loosing
23. 2 decl. m. nom. pl. guests / strangers
24. impf. act. ind. 2 pl. you would have fallen
25. fut. act. ind. 2 sg. you will command
26. impf. act. ind. 1 pl. we were present
27. pres. mid.-pass. opt. 2 sg. may you take pleasure in
28. 1 decl. f. dat. sg. in the beginning
29. pres. act. subj. 2 sg. in order that you may be
30. pres. act. opt. 3 sg. may he not die
31. impf. act. ind. 3 sg. he / she was loosing (NB. Were this an imperative, it would be indicated by an exclamation mark.)
32. pres. act. subj. 2 pl. in order that you may take
33. pres. act. ptc. m./n. dat. pl. to them loosing
34. pres. act. infin. to intend / be about to
35. pres. act. ind. 1 pl. we are away
36. pres. mid.-pass. subj. 1 sg. in order that I may choose (mid.) / be seized (pass.)
37. impf. act. ind. 3 pl. nor were they
38. pres. mid.-pass. opt. 1 pl. may we not judge ourselves (mid.) / be judged (pass.)
39. pres. act. subj. 1 pl. let us be
40. pres. act. subj. 2 sg. in order that you may drink
41. pres. act. impt. 2 pl. take / capture!
42. 3 decl. n. nom./acc. sg. a true thing
43. pres. mid.-pass. opt. 3 pl. nor may they save themselves (mid.) / be saved (pass.)
44. pres. act. opt. 1 sg. in order that I may flee
45. fut. act. ptc. m. nom. pl. being about to loose
46. impf. act. ind. 2 sg. were you away?
47. 2 decl. m. dat. pl. with eyes
48. impf. mid.-pass. ind. 3 sg. he was loosing for himself (mid.) / being loosed (pass.)
49. 3 decl. m. nom. sg. winged
50. 2 decl. n. gen. sg. of the high fire
51. impf. act. ind. 2 sg. you were considering
52. pres. act. impt. 2 sg. hasten!
53. 2 decl. m. dat. sg. in the holy temple
54. pres. act. subj. 3 sg. in order that he may roam
55. 3 decl. n. nom./acc. sg. eager / ready
56. fut. mid.-pass. ind. 1 sg. I will choose (mid.) / be seized (pass.)
57. pres. mid. subj. 3 pl. in order that they may become
58. 3 decl. n. dat. sg. by length
59. impf. mid. ind. 1 sg. I was fighting
60. pres./impf. mid. ind. 1 pl. we come / came to be (NB. πελομεσθα is a Homeric variant of πελομεθα.)
61. pres./impf. mid.-pass. ind. 2 pl. you are / were pleased with
62. pres. mid.-pass. subj. 2 pl. that you may command yourself (mid.) / be commanded (pass.)
63. pres. mid.-pass. impt. 2 sg. choose! (mid.) / be seized! (pass.)
64. impf. mid.-pass. ind. 3 sg. he was pursuing himself (mid.) / he was being pursued (pass.)
65. pres. act. infin. to loose
66. impf. act. ind. 3 sg. he was present
67. pres. mid. subj. 3 sg. that he may come
68. 3 decl. n. nom./acc. pl. cruel deeds
69. pres. act. ind. 1 sg. I am
70. 3 decl. f. nom. sg. (she) winged
71. pres. act. opt. 3 pl. may they come
72. pres. mid.-pass. impt. 2 sg. loose for yourself (mid.) / be loosed (pass.)
73. 2 decl. n. nom./acc. pl. things near
74. pres. act. ptc. n. nom./acc. sg. (a thing) being
75. 2 decl. m. acc. sg. or n. nom./acc. sg. his / her / its
76. impf. act. ind. 3 pl. where were they?
77. 3 decl. m. nom. sg. sweet
78. 2 decl. n. nom./acc. sg. itself
79. pres. act. subj. 3 sg. in order that he may be
80. 3 decl. m./f. nom. sg. true
Corrigendum: ἑμοι in question 4 should read ἐμοι.
1. Do you not
know, then, that words are the physician of the soul?
2. Please (both) come quickly now to the river and hide (yourselves) there among the trees.
3. To those doing difficult things, these things, which once they did not wish to attempt in fact, will seem to be easy.
4. While my comrades were passing, he / she was sleeping beside the sea.
5. If only we might all perceive that justice, not force, is the true measure of our country and (its) true glory.
6. (By) willingly bearing (f.) the many diseases of the body, you (sg.) show yourself (to be) a true friend of God.
7. Choose for yourself half of each work and I myself will do half (presumably the other half).
8. In a noble heart virtue will increase under troubles.
9. Never speak (infinitive as imperative) a shameful word , lest you yourself (sg.) also appear shameful.
10. He says that the men replying with true words are teaching (their) friends and learning the truth with them. (NB. ἀληθεσι is a variant of the dative plural ἀληθεσσι listed in Lesson 29.)
"The lamp of the Greek genius shines into the dark places of the world. All manner of men have perceived its light, and have done reverence to it."
(J. A. Nairn)
Corrigenda: Part 1. In the first example, αἱρησει (active) should read αἱρησεαι (middle) as the meaning is "choose", not "seize". In the second example, the first αἱρεεο (impf.) should read αἱρεεαι (pres.), and the second αἱρεεο (impt.) should have a rough breathing over the iota.
Corrigendum: ἐοτιν in question 10 should read ἐστιν.
1. Who is able
to do all things?
2. I see someone roaming along the river.
3. To whom (pl.) does war appear to be pleasant?
4. Let us then do some noble deed, then, in order that we may have glory.
5. Whom then will you (pl.) persuade to do a work so difficult?
6. Whoever say this, err.
7. Why are you (sg.) hastening? There is still plenty of (lit. much) time.
8. Whoever obeys the gods, this man comes to be wise and holy.
9. We are all, I suppose, dear to certain people, and have certain friends.
10. Whosesoever indeed the gold is, it is at least not yours.
11. I will ask what (things) you wish to save.
12. The child was asking which companions were going past.
13. Each mortal has a certain nature.
14. Someone will I suppose show / reveal the sacred temple.
2. ὀμβρος φερετο |ἀνεμῳ τ(ε)ῳ / ὑπο ἀνεμοιο τευ|.
3. μη ποτε ἐρδετε τι ὅ αἰσχρον ἐστιν.
4. ἑταιρων ἐμων τινες οὐκ ἐτι δυνατοι ἐισι πονον ἀνεχεσθαι.
5. τίνας λεγε παρεμμεν;
6. τέοισι μαχ(ε)εσθε, και εἱνεκα τεῦ;
7. οὐδεις ὅς πειραει παντας (ἀνθρωπους) πειθειν σοφος ἐστιν.
8. τί βροτοι οὐ πινουσι νεκταρ;
9. ἀναξ τις ποτε κευθεν ἑον θησαυρον ὑπο κεινῃσι πετρῃσιν.
10. ἐχεις φιλους τινας οἵ εἰσι και ἐμοι; τίνας; / τίνες εἰσιν;
11. αἰτεομεν ἅ τινα ἐπεα / οὕς τινας λογους δυνατος ἐστι ἀκουειν.
12. αἰτεομεν ἅ τινα ἐπεα / οὕς τίνας λογους λεγον (impf. ind.) / λεγοιεν (pres. opt.).
1. Who, then, is this man,
whom even the wind and sea obey? (Matthew 4.41)
2. Not everyone who does something on account of pleasure is shameful, but (rather) that man who on account of pleasure does something shameful. (Aristotle, Ethics 1151b)
3. Whatever is beautiful, is always dear. (Euripides, Bacchae 881)
4. Is there anyone so foolish as to think (lit. who thinks) that the gods do not exist? (Plato)
5. I take no pleasure in the food of decay nor in the pleasures of this life; I desire the food of God, which is the Body of Christ, and I wish to drink His Blood, which is eternal love. (St Ignatius of Antioch, Letter to the Church at Rome, 7.3)
6. Pyrrho said that to live or die makes no difference. Someone therefore asked (him): Why don't you die then? And he said, Because it makes no difference. (Diogenes Laertius NB. μηδεν and οὐδεν are both accusatives of respect, literally meaning as to nothing).
τε δενδρεον, ὅ
ἐτι τῃ ἐστι παρα θαλασσῃ.
2. παντων φιλων ἐμων οὐδεις ἐστιν οὑτως σοφος και ἀγαθος και ἡδυς ὡς κασιγνητος ἐμος.
3. μουνοι κεινοι ἀρα |αἰει ἐρδοντες / οἵ αἰει ἐρδουσιν| ὅ ἐστιν ἐσθλον και ἀληθες μακαρες εἰσιν.
"We may presume that anyone who makes any pretence to any shade of appreciation of learning or literature must have at least some knowledge of Homer. . . . To appreciate Homer's beauty, all that is necessary is to read him."
(Ford Maddox Ford, The March of Literature)
1. What do you
desire to happen to me?
2. These are my children, that man was saying.
3. He commands me to come, in order to supply gold to me.
4. The gods indeed drink nectar, but we (drink) water or something else.
5. (Out) of all of us that man is always picked out first.
6. Go to the river, and bring me a measure of water from there.
7. May you mingle with us as friends (do) with friends.
8. I certainly take pleasure in the sweet / delightful voice of the Muses.
9. Therefore he will send us to the king.
10. We, then, desire this, and not anything else.
11. Whoever obeys me, such a man (lit. this man) is dear / a friend to me.
12. All men are asking what things I desire to learn.
1. δοκεει (ἐ)μοι ἀγαθος και κρατερος
(ἀνηρ / τις).
2. ἡμιν / ἀμμιν σιτον κε φερον, εἰ ἀναγκην ἡμεων / ἡμετερην γιγνωσκον.
3. τίς ἡμεων ταδε παντα μαθησεται πρωτος; ἐγων;
4. Μουσαι διδασκουσι ἡμεας / ἀμμε πολλα καλα. (NB. διδασκω takes a double accusative, one of the thing taught, the other of the person(s) taught).
5. (αὐτος) ἐστιν ἐμος ἀληθης φιλος· τίς ἀλλος δη ἐστιν οὑτως (ἐ)μοι ἀγαθος;
6. μισγε παντα ὑδατι, ἐνθεν προς (ἐ)με φερε .
7. ἡμεις / ἀμμες γε βουλομεθα θνησκεμεν ὡς ἀγαθοι, μη φευγμεναι ὡς κακοι. (NB. To understand the use of μη here, see the Corrigendum for Section 114.)
8. ὁραε ἡμεας / ἀμμε διωκοντας ἑον κασιγνητον μετα δενδρεοισι.
9. γιγνωσκω τον ἀνδρα μαχεετο ποτε ἐγγυς μευ / ἐμειο ἐν πολεμῳ.
10. ἀληθειη (ἐ)μοι φιλη ἐστιν, και φρενι / νοῳ μευ σιτος.
1. Water and fire will never be mixed, nor will we ever become friends.
(Theognis, Elegies 1245)
2. May there not happen to me those things I desire, but those things that are good for me. (Menander, Epigrams 336)
3. The gods sell us all good things at the price of (our) toils. (Epicharmus, Fragment)
4. And I send to friendly men out-poured nectar, the gift of the Muses, the sweet fruit of the mind. (Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.7-9)
5. Do not on one hand love me with words, but having a different (lit. another) mind and spirit, if in fact you do love me and have a true mind. (Theognis, Elegies 87-88 NB. (i) φρην is often used in the plural, φρενες, with the same meaning; (ii) ἀλλας agrees with φρενάς alone, but implicitly qualifies νόον also.)
6. I live, no longer I, but Christ lives in me.
7. We, (though) many, are one bread, one body. For we all eat of the one Bread (i.e. the Eucharist). (1 Corinthians 10.17)
1. θεων τινες μουνον νεκταρ
πινουσιν· οὐδε βουλονται
ἀλλο τι, οὑτως δοκεει
2. τί ἀρα με αξει ἀπο δικης; πολεμος; ἤ θανατος; ἤ πονος; ἤ ἡδονη; οὐδεν.
3. τεῦ Μουσης δωρον ἐστι γλυκεια ση φωνη;
"Greece and her foundations are
1. I shall not obey you, since what you command is evil.
2. Is this gift yours (sg.) or someone else's?
3. Please come (pl.); for we shall receive you as friends.
4. We indeed prefer that man to be first; but whom do you (pl.) prefer?
5. God supplies all good things to you (sg.).
6. Do something noble (infinitive as imperative), and your glory will increase among all.
7. But now will some one of you please mix that wine with water, that we may drink.
8. But what companions do you (sg.) choose for yourself?
9. I suppose it appears to you to be easy to find a road so broad.
10. From what place / whence shall I say that you come?
1. πῶς εὑρησομεν ὑμεας;
2. ἡμεις εἰμεν φιλοι σευ / σειο· ὅ τι βουλεαι / ἐθελεις τῃδε ἐρδε / ῥεζε / ποιεε.
3. φανεω ὑμιν ὁδον ἀγουσαν προς θαλασσαν.
4. φερε προς ἐμε κεινην πετρην, και λεξω σε κρατερον.
5. τί δοκεει σοι / τοι οὑτως σοφος;
6. τίς ὑμεων πινε τον οἰνον;
7. ὑμεις ἐστε ἑταιροι μευ· μαχ(ε)ωμεθα ἱνα σωζωμεν πατριδα ἡμετερην / ἡμεων.
8. γιγνωσκω ἀνακτα ἡδεσθαι σοι ὡς ἀληθει φιλῳ.
9. τίς πεμπει ὑμεας προς ἐμε; ποθεν;
10. ὑμεις (μεν) σιτον φερετε, συ δε ὑδωρ.
1. You shall love your neighbour as yourself. (Matthew 19.19)
2. Whence do wars and whence do conflicts (arise) among you? Is it not from there, from your desires warring within you? You covet (something) and you do not have (it), so you fight and wage war. (James 4.1-2)
3. Even you, son! (Suetonius, Divus Iulius 82.3 "Et tu, Brute.")
4. Time is the physician of all ills; it (lit. that) will now heal you also. (Menander, Fragment)
1. ἐγω γε οὐ πεισομαι, ὅτι οὐ δοκεει
μοι δικαιον οὐδε ἐσθλον.
2. ποθεν δεξομεθα σιτον (τε) και οἰνον και ὑδωρ ἀνακτι και λαῳ ἑῳ / του;
"I think that a knowledge of Greek thought and life, of the arts in which the Greeks expressed their thought and sentiment, is essential to high culture."
(Chas. Eliot Norton)
Corrigendum: Note b: For οἶ with a smooth breathing) read οἷ with a rough breathing.
Corrigendum: The title of this Section should refer to the verb εἰμι (I am), not the non-existent word εμὁ. This error has also found its way into the Lesson title and the Table of Contents.
1. One of them was dying, but the others are still fleeing.
2. There is no one among (lit. of) mortals, nor ever was nor will be, who knows all things.
3. He commanded them to lead their brother to himself.
4. You will find him and his sons eating under the trees.
5. They want all men to obey them.
6. He was asking them to enter, but they did not wish to.
7. Let us seek him, in order that we may save him.
8. Obey the king's commands, and he will love you and lead you into peace.
9. Which of them are your sons?
10. The sons of a worthless man will seek worthless companions, and will take pleasure in them.
1. λεγον ἑ / μιν σφίσι δοκεειν
ἐμμεν ἀνερα νοου καλου / φρενος καλης .
2. ἐσομαι οἱ ἀληθης φιλος, ὡς και αὐτος ἐμοι ἐσ(σ)εται / ἐσται.
3. πιπτον εἰς ἑα / ἑο γουνατα και αἰτεον δωρα.
4. σπευδε· και δυνατος ἐσ(σ)εαι σωζεμεν ἑ / μιν και ἑους / ἑο υἱους.
5. τίς ἡμεων οὐ φιλεει ἕ αὐτον;
6. θανατος ἐσ(ε)ται σφιν πυλη δοξης, ἐρδον γαρ ἐργα ἐσθλα.
7. πειραομεν παιδας κευθεμεναι, ἱνα μηδεις σφεας εὑρισκοι.
8. ποταμος οὐκ ἐην εὐρυς, αὐταρ ἑον / ἑο μηκος ἠν πολλον.
9. κεινη (μεν) νοον ἐχει καλον, κειναι δε παντα αἱρεονται.
10. δεξομαι σφεας προφρων ὡς ἑταιρους.
1. And no longer do the children at (his) knees call him "papa". (Iliad
2. Enter through the narrow gate; (for wide is the gate and the road which leads to death and many enter through it;) but narrow is the gate and the road which leads to life, and few there are who find it. (Matthew 7.13-14)
3. For we are the temple of the living God, as God says: "I shall dwell in them, and I shall be their God, and they themselves shall be My people." (2 Corinthians 6.16)
4. If you (pl.) love Me, keep My commandments. Whoever has My commandments and keeps (them), that man is he who loves Me, and I shall love him and I shall show Myself to him. (John 15.15, 21)
5. By associating with bad men you yourself will turn out bad, but (by associating) with wise men (you will turn out) wise. (Menander, Epigrams)
1. τίς ὑμεων δυνατος
ἐστι εὑρισκεμεν ὁδον
ἀγουσαν δια δενδρεων προς ποταμον;
2. εἰ γιγνωσκε σε παρειναι, λεγε κε σοι που αὐτος.
3. υἱον ἑον / ἑο (κεινη) ζητεε ἐν πασι / παντεσσι παισι / παιδεσσι ἑταιρων ἡμεων / ἡμετερων.
"In science, read by preference the newest works; in literature, the oldest. The classic literature is always modern."
Corrigendum: The ἄν in the example in Paragraph b. should have a smooth breathing.
Corrigendum: τετυγμαι is the pf. mid.-pass. of τευχω, not simply its pf. mid.
1. Her ordered them to come to him.
2. If he falls from that tree, he will die.
3. They built a temple to the god beside the sea.
4. Whenever children see any fruits, they desire to eat them.
5. We searched for you (sg.), but we were not able to find (you).
6. If you (sg.) ask me to do half (indeed), I shall do (so), but not the whole.
7. You (pl.) would not have considered him to be so bad, if he had not done this.
8. Please send (sg.) two companions, that we may fear nothing.
9. When you turn that stone, you will no doubt find a treasure.
10. Let us mix this wine with water; for it is quite sweet.
11. Whoever is sent to my country, that man will be loved by everyone.
12. Whatever he builds, he builds willingly / eagerly (adjective used adverbially).
1. ὁς τις κεινο (ἀν) ἐρδῃ, κακος ἐστιν.
2. ὁτε (ἀν) / ἐπην ἡμεας τι διδασκῃ, μανθανομεν.
3. εἰ (κε) προς ἀνακτα ξεινους πεμψωσι, ἀπολεσει σφεας.
4. αἰει σπευδομεν ἐπι / προς πυλην ἠν / εἰ τινα εἰσερχομενον / εἰσερχεσθαι ὁραωμεν.
5. ὁτε (κε) / ἐπην θεοι ὀμβρον λυωσιν ἐξ οὐρανου, ἀεξονται ποταμοι.
6. εἰ τῃδε υἱον ἑον ζητησε, αἰψα ἀν τον / μιν εὑρισκεν. (NB. Use the imperfect of εὑρισκω as it has a strong aorist, and strong aorists are not introduced until Lesson 40.)
7. ὁτε (ἀν) / ἐπην ταδε παντα γιγνωσκωμεν, μαλα ἐσ(σ)ομεθα μακαρες.
8. ἅ τινα κακα (κεν) αἰτησωσι, λεγε οὐ ποιησεμεν.
9. εἰ (κε) με εἰς πολεμον πεμψῃς, μαλα δεισομαι.
10. ὁτε (κεν) / ἐπην συν ἐμοι ᾐς, μακαρ εἰμι.
1. Whoever has the Son of God has life; whoever does not have the Son of God
does not have life. (1 John 5.12)
2. Those two Apollo made: Asclepius and Plato the one to save the soul, the other to save the body. (Anonymous inscription)
3. For very hateful to me is that man who hides one thing in (his) mind, but speaks another. (Iliad 9.312-3 NB. The plural of φρην is used in the same sense as the singular.)
4. It is bad surely to drink much wine; but if one drinks it wisely, he is not bad but good. (Theognis, Elegies 211-212)
5. For whoever wishes to save his own life will lose it; but whoever loses (his) life for My sake (lit. for the sake of Me) will find it. (Matthew 16.25)
6. Whenever you (sg.) are about to criticize your neighbour (adjective used as substantive) in any way, first examine your own evil deeds (lit. evil things). (Menander, Fragment 710, Kock)
1. οἰσω σφισι ἡμισυ παντων καρπων
ἐξ ἡμετερων δενδρεων·
σφεας γαρ φιλεω ὡς μαλα φιλους πλησιους.
2. οὐδεις σφεων δυνατος ἐην θησαυρον εὑρισκειν, αὐταρ δυω μαλα ἐγγυς του / ἑο δις ἐσαν / ἠσαν.
3. πεμπε οἱ ταδε δυο δωρα παρα ἐμειο, και αἰτεε μιν κασιγνητον ἐμον προφρονα δεχεσθαι.
"Whatever the other works of classical antiquity have to give us, Homer gives it more abundantly than they all."
Additional Note: Often, when rendering an English imperative or infinitive into the more finely nuanced Greek language, it is an open question whether the action should be represented in simple aspect (aorist tense) or progressive aspect (present tense). Such doubts are often resolved by remembering that the progressive aspect covers actions that are (i) incipient, (ii) ongoing, or (iii) contemporary with another stated event.
1. Please ask (sg.) nothing at all wicked from me.
2. How will someone who has married be happy, if he does not readily endure many things?
3. No road is apparent to them (f.), though they have sought (it) for a long time (lit. through much time).
4. It is right that a man who has done some evil should also receive evils.
5. It is shameful indeed to do wrong (once), but to keep on doing wrong is very shameful.
6. If the wine were sweet, I would not have mixed it with water.
7. Never do cruel deeds.
8. He desired to elude them, lest they kill him.
9. I hastened to come, that I might save you (pl.).
10. To those who have married there will no doubt be many both difficult and pleasant things.
11. The glory / reputation of a doctor who has freed a man from diseases increases.
1. ὁτε (ἀν) βουλευητε καλον τι
2. μιξας ἑον ὑδωρ θαλασσῃ, ποταμος ἀπολλυεται.
3. λεγε / λεξε τους ἕ πεισαι χρυσον σφισι πεμπεμεν.
4. δεισαμεν μη ἡμεας /ἀμμε ἀπολεσ(σ)ειας.
5. οὑτως τευχετο, μη τις οἰνον λυσειεν εἰς γαιαν.
6. βουλη ἠεν ἀνερος ἡμεας πεμψαντος.
7. ὅ τι / ὅττι (κε) τευχῃς, κρατερον τε καλον τε ποιεε.
8. βιῃ ἀγοντο, ὀφρα σφεας κρινειε ἀναξ.
9. μη πω κακον ποιησαιτε.
10. κρινεμεναι ἀγαθον ἀπο κακου ἀρετη ἐστιν ἡμετεροιο νοοιο.
Corrigendum: Exercise 6 here is almost identical to Exercise 118:1 above, the only difference being the use of ἐφη instead of λεγε.
1. A man making evils for another is in
fact making ready evils for himself, and an evil plan is especially evil for him
having planned (it). (Hesiod, Works and Days 265-6)
2. Every word, if deeds are absent (i.e. if unsupported by actions), appears foolish. (Demosthenes)
3. No one having deceived a stranger eludes in any way the immortals. (Theognis, Elegies 143-4)
4. It is not (possible) for mortals to wage war against the gods; to none is this lawful. (Theognis, Elegies 687-8 NB. It may be preferable to omit the word "possible", stressing the propriety rather than the possibility of warring against the gods.)
5. "There is no one having married who is not storm-tossed", say all men, and (yet) knowing (this) they keep on marrying. (Greek Anthology, Book 10, no. 116)
6. Socrates said that many men live in order to eat; but he himself ate in order to live. (Xenophon, Memorabilia).
1. ἐν ἀρχῃ ποιησε Θεος οὐρανους και γαιαν και
φαος ἠελιοιο, και ὑδατα κρινεν εἰς θαλασσας.
και ἐφη / λεξε, "ποιησωμεν
ἀνθρωπον ὁμοιον ἡμιν (αὐτοις) και ἀνακτα παντων
τα / ἅ ὁραεται."
2. τεοισι φηνας χρυσον ὁν κασιγνητος ἐμος σοι / τοι πεμψεν;
Corrigenda: Word study items genealogy, homogeneous, and cinema belong to Lesson 38, where they are explained by γενος (race, offspring) and κινεομαι (I move about) in Section 274.
"For those who cannot make the classics their chief study in college, I would give one bit of practical advice: it is to buy, beg, borrow or steal enough of a knowledge of Greek to read Homer in the original."
(E. K. Rand)
1. I requested few things for myself; only bread, in order that I might live. (NB.
αἰτεω is here used in the middle voice.)
2. Let us send your (sg.) brother (on our behalf); for he is very wise. (NB. πεμπω is here used in the middle voice.)
3. Having perceived many men coming, we turned round and fled. (NB. τρεπω, when used in the middle voice, means "turn oneself around".)
4. If you (pl.) had been busy at worthy deeds, the kingdom would have been strong.
5. Apollo was not at all pleased with their cruel deeds.
6. You (sg.) will not have many possessions, unless you work hard.
7. Because they were fighting as brave men, they saved the country for themselves. (NB. σωζω is here used in the middle voice.)
8. Whenever mortals do something shameful for themselves, some people will suffer. (NB. ῥεζω is here used in the middle voice.)
9. You (pl.) were planning plans of all sorts, which I will not allow to escape the king's attention.
10. Whenever the first one turns round, all the others also turn round.
11. This is the voice of a friend bidding the children to come.
12. For children learning time flies (lit. hastens).
1. ἐπει εἰρετο, "τίνες ἐστε;" τί ἀμειψασθε;
2. πολλον σιτον τευξαμεθα, ὀφρα παντες ἐσθιοιμεν.
3. παντες (σφεων) μαχεσ(σ)αντο πολλῃ δοξῃ.
4. ὅ τι / ὅττι (κε) θεμις ἡμεας / ἀπο ἡμεων αἰτεῃ, προφρονες ποιεωμεν.
5. ἡσαμην χαριτι σης / σευ φωνης.
6. ἀξω ἐμον / μευ κασιγνητον προς ὑμεας, ὁπως μιν / ἑ δεξησθε ὡς ἑταιρον.
7. τίς σε κεινο διδαξε; ἤ διδαξαο (αὐτος);
8. τευξωμεθα Μουσῃς νηον παρα θαλασσῃ.
9. εἰ (κε) δεξηαι μευ βουλην, σωσεις βασιλειην (ἁ)πασαν.
10. θρεψε (act.) / θρεψατο (mid.) ἑο δυω υἱας εἰς ἀνερας πολλαων ἀρεταων.
1. Having called the children to Himself, Jesus said, "Allow the children to come
to Me, and do not prevent them. For of such is the kingdom of God. And I say to you,
whoever does not
receive the kingdom of God as a child, will never enter into it." (Luke
2. By the grace of God I am what I am. And the grace of God towards me was not empty / fruitless. Many things I toiled at; not, however, I but the grace of God with me. (1 Corinthians 15.10-11)
3. There is no one who is not dear to himself. (Menander, Epigrams NB. Where a simple negative (e.g. οὐ) is followed by a compound negative (e.g. οὐδεις), it is strengthened, not cancelled.)
4. This commandment we have from God, that whoever loves God (should) also love his brother. (1 John 4.21)
5. How will a man not loving his brother whom he sees, love God Whom he does not see? (1 John 4.20)
1. βουλευσαντες ὅ τι ἐθελον ῥεξαι, σπευσαν
ἑπι / προς ποταμον και
μετα δενδρεοισι κευθοντο.
2. ἐασατε παντα ὑμετερα / ὑμεων χρηματα, και φευγετε. σχετλιος (δε) ἀναξ μη ἀπολεσ(σ)ειε και ἡμεας / ἀμμε.
3. τευξαμεν πυλην οὑτως ὑψηλην κρατερην τε, ἱνα μηδεις και πειραοι εἰσερχεσθαι και χρυσον ἡμεων αἱρεειν (act.) / αἱρεεσθαι (mid.).
"Greece had a unique power of discerning and reproducing the elements in human life which are real and all-embracing. Homer, who stands on the threshold of Greek history, became the teacher of all humanity."
1. At least, if you plan (for yourselves), plan
for the good of your country.
2. May he take up his possessions (for himself) and go; for we all hate him.
3. It is necessary for a man to live according to his nature.
4. He says that they were very pleased with your gifts.
5. We desired you to come, that we might send you to the king for ourselves. (NB. βουλομεθα must be in the imperfect tense, as the purpose clause is in the optative mood).
6. If you wish to find your sheep, seek (them) yourself. (NB. The imperative is in the middle voice.)
7. This they did, that they may make trial of your virtue. (NB. The middle of πειραω is used in much the same sense as the active.)
8. A man must learn / find out many things with his own eyes.
9. Let us labour with upright deeds and words for the sake of justice.
10. He pursues those who have turned (aor. mid.) and are fleeing.
11. Please pick out (for yourself) (sg.) your sheep from mine, in order that we may know whose (lit. of whom) each is.
12. Having toiled through(out) the whole day, we are now sleeping.
1. δεξασθε σφεας ὡς φιλους εἱνεκα
2. γιγνωσκω ἑ πονησαμενον / πονησασθαι· ἀλλα και ἐγω πονησαμην.
3. λυσον σευ μηλα, ἱνα ὑπο δενδρεοισιν ἐσθιωσιν.
4. ἐθελησαμεν κευθεμεν χρυσον, ὀφρα μη και ζητησαντες εὑρισκοιεν.
5. βουλευσαμεν ὁπως λυσαισθε και φευγοιτε. (NB. Strong aorists, like that of φευγω, should not be used until after their introduction in Lesson 40.)
6. μαχεομεθα ἱνα σωσαιμεθα (mid. = save for ourselves) ἡμετερα χρηματα ἀπο κακοιο ἀνακτος.
7. αἰψα ἀμειψασθε, ὀφρα χαιρω ἀληθειῃ.
8. τρεψαμενοι ἐγγυς ποταμου, νυν παρερχοντο πετρας ὑψηλας ἐπι θαλασσῃ.
9. πιστευσατε μοι. τοδε ῥεξα μουνον ἱνα ἡσαισθε.
10. λεγε / λεξε ξεινους, τευξαμενους τι ὑπο δενδρεοις, φευγμεναι.
11. χρη σε τοδε ἐργον ποιεειν.
12. χρη (ἐ)κεινους παιδας μανθανειν χρηστα.
1. If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself and take up his
cross every day, and follow Me. (Luke 9.23)
2. And Moses, having observed the toil of the sons of Israel, sees an Egyptian man beating a certain Hebrew, (one) of his own brothers / kinsmen of the sons of Israel. Having looked around this way and that, he sees no one, and having struck the Egyptian down, he hid him in the sand. (Exodus 2.11-12, LXX)
3. (Though) not seeing Christ, you love (Him) and believe in Him; much will you rejoice, therefore, having received the goal of your faith, the salvation of (your) souls. (1 Peter 1.8-9)
4. Happiness we always choose on account of itself and never on account of something else. But glory and pleasure and mind / discretion and all virtues we choose indeed on account of themselves and for the sake of happiness, thinking that thus we will have happiness. But happiness we do not choose for the sake of those things nor on account of something else, but on account of itself. For it is a good in it itself. (Aristotle, Ethics 1097b)
5. Therefore it is right for us not to be deserters from the will of God. (St Clement, Letter to the Church at Corinth, 21.4)
6. We ought to teach one who is still a child noble deeds. (Phocylides, Sayings 13)
7. It is necessary to seek God, since in fact He is not far off from each one of us. For in Him we live and move (about) and are; "for we are even His offspring", as also some of your poets say. (Acts 17.17-28, the quote at the end coming from Aratus, Phenomena 5)
1. εἰ / ἠν μαχεηαι εἱνεκα πατριδος
πολλην ἑξεις / σχησεις δοξαν· καλον γαρ ἐστιν ἐν
ὀφθαλμοισι παντων ἀνθρωπων.
2. δεξαντο ὑμεων δωρα χαιροντες, και ἐθελουσι ὑμεας γιγνωσκειν σφέας μαλα ἡδομενους / ἡδεσθαι.
3. σοφος ἀναξ ἀμειψατο κελευειν μεν ῥηιδιον ἐιναι και ἡδυ, πειθεσθαι δε μαλα χαλεπον ποτε ἐιναι.
4. χαλεπον ἐστιν ἐμμεναι αἰει ἀγαθος· αὐταρ χρη ἡμεας πειραμεναι, κεινη γαρ ἐστιν ὁδος εἰς / προς ὀλβον.
"Call not Greek a dead language! The bard who created, and the heroes who fought in the Iliad, are therein not entombed but enshrined; and their spirits will continue to breathe and burn there."
1. aor. act. ptc. m./n. dat. sg. to one having sent
2. aor. act. opt. 3 pl. may they loose
3. aor. act. infin. to do wrong
aor. mid. impt. 2 sg. do yourself wrong
4. aor. mid. ind. 3 sg. he turned (himself)
5. aor. act. subj. 2 sg. if you do
6. aor. act. ind. 2 pl. you nourished
aor. act. impt. 2 pl. nourish
7. aor. mid. ptc. m. acc. pl. them having laboured
8. aor. act. opt. 1 sg. may I do
9. aor. mid. impt. 2 pl. do not fight
10. aor. act. infin. to do
aor. mid. impt. 2 sg. do for yourself
11. aor. act. ind. 1 pl. we saved
12. aor. mid. opt. 2 sg. that you may reply (purpose clause after secondary main verb)
13. aor. act. ind. 3 sg. he thought / perceived
14. aor. mid. opt. 3 sg. may he receive
15. aor. act. ptc. m. nom. pl. they having destroyed
16. aor. act. opt. 1 sg. may I lift up
17. aor. act. ind. 2 pl. if you had thought / perceived
18. aor. mid. ind. 2 sg. you requested for yourself
19. aor. mid. infin. to be pleased with / to enjoy
20. aor. act. impt. 2 sg. teach!
21. aor. act. ptc. f. gen. sg. of her having turned
22. aor. act. ind. 2 sg you believed / trusted
aor. act. ptc. m. nom. sg. one having believed / trusted
23. aor. mid. subj. 2 sg. if you attempt (NB. πειραω is often used in the middle voice with the same sense as the active.)
24. aor. act. opt. 2 sg. may you persuade
Let us therefore love one another, in order that we may all come into the Kingdom of God. My brethren, let us do the will of God Who called us, that we may live; and let us pursue virtue, but flee wickedness and evil-doing, lest evils befall us. For, if we willingly do good, peace will pursue us. Let us therefore serve God with (lit. in) a pure heart, and we shall be just. For by doing the will of Christ, we shall find repose. (Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, p. 46-48, #X, XI, VI.6)
1. Many physicians came in and killed me (lit. entering killed me).
2. He was the only (one) or the first of mortals who showed both by his life and (his) words how a man becomes good and happy at the same time. (Epigrams 3)
3. But long and straight is the road to virtue, and in the beginning (it is) difficult. But, when someone comes to the topmost (level), then indeed the road is easy. (Hesiod, Works and Days 289-292)
4. I ask that they may all be one, just as You (are) in Me and I in You that these also may be one in Us, I in them and You in Me, so that the world may know that You loved them as You loved Me. And I wish them to be with Me, that they may see My glory. (John 17.21-24)
5. The bread of God, coming down from Heaven, supplies life to men. I Myself am the Bread of Life. (John 6.33, 35)
6. But it is necessary for you also, O men, to be of good hope regarding (lit. towards) death, and to consider this one thing (to be) true: that nothing bad comes (lit. is) to a good man, whether living or dying, and the gods do not overlook his deeds. (Plato, Apology)
1. μη φευγετε, ἀλλα ὑπο πετρῃ
κευθεσθε ὀφρα παρερχηται, (ἱνα) μη ὑμεας νοησῃ και ἀπολεσ(σ)ῃ.
2. πολλοι θησαυροι εἰσιν ἐν κοσμῳ, ἀλλα οὐ θεμις ἐστι λαμβανειν ἀπο ἀλληλων ὅ τι (ἀν) βουλωμεθα.
"The greater the work of art, the more universal are its expressed insights the more successfully does it portray and illumine the man in men, that is, those aspects of human experience and those abiding truths which all men can understand and share. Homer and Shakespeare, Michelangelo and Beethoven, are individual in their approach to life, and their artistic products are individual works of art; but what these works express remains intelligible and significant through the centuries."
(Theodore M. Greene)
1. Come and see what I / they found.
2. If you (sg.) should suffer some evil, endure (it) as a man.
3. We prayed to all the gods, that they might save us from death.
4. He hopes to lead (his) comrades to another country.
5. Though having learned many things, it is necessary that you (pl.) learn many others also.
6. If you (pl.) were to hide the gold here, no one would ever find it.
7. But what could I do, since (my) comrades did not come?
8. Having led all his sheep / flocks into the fold, the shepherd now sleeps.
9. What would they take from there?
10. Save us, lest we die.
11. Tell (sg.) those being sent what (things) they must do.
12. It is necessary that not one (person) only but everyone should endure trouble on behalf of the fatherland.
1. πῶς ἁμαρτες ἐμων ἐπεων;
2. ποιμενα λαθοντες, δυω μηλα ἑλον και φυγον.
3. πολλα μανθανοιτε / μαθοιτε ὀφρα ἐτι παιδες ἐστε.
4. εἰ (κε) νυν ἐλ(υ)θοιεν, τί ῥεξειας;
5. κελευετε σφεας μη τι λαβ(ε)ειν.
6. τί αλλο κε φαγοιμι, ἐπει σιτον μουνον ἐχομεν;
7. ἐλπομεν / ἐλπομεθα εὑρεμεναι παντα μηλα εὑδοντα ἐν αὐλῃ.
8. ἐνεικον προς με υἱεας σευ, ὀφρα σφεας ἰδω.
9. πόθεν οἰνον λαβες;
10. ἰδουσαι ἀμμε, μαλα χαιρον. (NB. The imperfect of χαιρω must be used, as the aorist χαρην has not been introduced.)
1. Take, eat; this is My Body. (Matthew 26.26)
2. Being a man, I erred; do not be surprised. (Menander, Fragment 499)
3. If you (sg.) did evil things, you ought also to suffer evil things. (Sophocles, Fragment 18)
4. If any man, whilst do anything, hopes to escape the notice of God, he errs. (Pindar, Olympian Odes 1.64-5)
5. If a man were not to marry, he would not have misfortunes. (Menander, Fragment)
6. But what do you (sg.) have which you did not get (as a pure gift) from God? And if you did actually get it, why do you boast as though not having gotten it? (1 Corinthians 4.7)
7. It is not possible to find anyone's life free from sorrow. (Menander, Epigrams 419)
8. I am the good shepherd. A good shepherd dies for the sake of his sheep. I know My sheep and they know Me, and they follow Me. But I have other sheep which are not of this fold. Those I must lead, and they shall hear My voice and there shall be one flock, one shepherd. (John 10.10-16 NB. γενήσεται is usually preferred to γενήσονται in the NT manuscripts.)
1. ἀμειψατο ἑον κασιγνητον πεισαι παντας
(ἕους) ἐταιρους μη ἐασαι ἀνακτα σφεας
2. εἰ μη σχετλια ἐργα ποιεοιεν ἀλληλοισιν ἀνθρωποι, εἰρηνη ἀν εἰη / πελοιτο / γιγνοιτο αἰει· ἐστι γαρ εἰρηνη καρπος δικης.
Θεῖος Ὅμηρος ὅδ ἐστίν Ἑλλαδα τὴν μεγάλαυχον
(The Contest of Homer and Hesiod 309-310)
Corrigendum: ἴδον has erroneously been printed with duplicate diacritics. In the middle voice it means seem.
1. May we become wise; for it is necessary (for us to do so).
2. They did not desire to speak evil things about (the) others.
3. If in fact you should seek eagerly, no doubt you would learn many things.
4. They eluded us (by) passing by at a distance.
5. I shall not allow you to take (for yourself) what he gave me.
6. In the beginning God said, "Let there be light", and it came to be.
7. Having endured many toils / troubles, she completed a noble life. (NB. See corrigendum to Section 141 above.)
8. How indeed might I choose, since you offered me only one (thing)?
9. If he didn't take for himself the possessions of others, he would not (in that case) come to be a wicked man.
10. He was boasting that he was wise, so that many would trust / believe in him.
11. To those who asked, it is necessary to tell the truth.
12. While fighting, many (men) died.
13. Did you (pl.) not see them fighting for the sake of life?
1. βουλεσθαι και
τελεσαι οὐκ ἐστιν αὐτο. (NB. The verb is in the
singular as (i) infinitives are neuter verbal nouns and (ii) plural neuter nouns
take singular verbs.)
2. ἀνεχωμεθα και τοδε εἱνεκα πατριδος (ἡμετερης).
3. τί (ἀν/κεν) γενοιτο, εἰ (ἀν/κεν) ἐλθοι;
4. εἰ ὀμβρος (κεν) αἰψα ἐλθοι / γενοιτο, ἀκρα δενδρεα πεσοι (ἀν) παντα .
5. ἑλομενοι τι, μη αἰψα αλλο τι ἑλεσθε.
6. ἀνεχεσθαι / ἀνασχεσθαι νηπιους οὐ ποτε ῥηιδιον ἐστιν. (NB. See corrigendum to Section 141 above.)
7. εἰ (κεν) ἐροιο, εἰποιμι / λεξαιμι (ἀν) σοι παντα τα / ἅ γιγνωσκω περι σφεων.
8. τωνδε δυω καρπων, ἑλεο / ἑλευ ἕνα και μοι ἑτερον πορε.
9. οὐκ (κεν) πιθοιτο, οὐδε εἰ (ἀν) κελευσαιμι.
10. ὁτε (ἀν) βουληαι τι μαθειν, πυθεο / πυθευ.
1. And may all things happen to you, which you desire in your mind. (Odyssey
φρην occurs more often in the plural than the singular in Homer.)
2. It is sweet even to learn / inquire. (Hesiod, Fragment 191)
3. For God loved the world greatly, and He gave His only Son, that everyone believing in Him might not be lost. (John 3.16 NB. ἀπολομην is aorist middle.)
4. For it is a noble thing for a brave man to die, having fallen among the front-line fighters whilst fighting for his country. (Tyrtaeus, Battle Songs 10.1-2)
5. This then is what I would say to you: that no one at all having taken (up), while still young, this opinion about the gods, (namely) that they do not exist ever completed his life having remained in this opinion to old age. (Plato, Laws 888c)
6. No one would choose to live apart from friends, even though having many other good things. (Aristotle, Ethics 1155a)
7. From the beginning of life always to hate those things which it is necessary to hate and to love those things which it is necessary to love this is true education. (Plato, Laws 653c)
1. ποιμην παντα ἑα μηλα ἀπανευθε ὁδου
κυθε, ὀφρα μηδεις παρερχομενος
2. φαγοντες ἡμισυ σιτοιο και πιοντες παντα οἰνον, δυω ξεινοι φυγον, δεισαντες μη τις εὑροι σφέας και ἑλοι.
ἐξ αῤχῆς Ὅμηρον ἐπεὶ μεμαθήκασι πάντες
(Xenophanes, Fragment 10)
1. He stood apart, so that they might not see him.
2. We knew her when she was still a child.
3. If you (sg.) endure patiently this disease, you will have not a little glory.
4. I fear lest the child go into the river and perish.
5. Please teach (sg.) us about this evil disease, so that we may not die.
6. They stood near the rock, from which sweet water was flowing.
7. No one dared to tell him / her about the death of his / her son.
8. I will show you (pl.) all the gold, when (ever) they go.
9. Say who you are, so that the king may know.
10. Why did you (pl.) not enter, but stood at / beside the gates?
11. Those who know many noble things become noble.
12. Whenever the sun sinks into the sea, the shepherd leads the sheep into the fold.
1. πολλους γνῶ ἐκ της / κεινης γαιης.
2. τλαωμεν / τληωμεν ὅ τι / ἅ τινα βιος ἡμιν (κεν) φεροι.
3. εἰ / ἠν στηῃς ἐπι της πετρης, δυνατος ἐσ(σ)εαι ἰδε(ε)ιν θαλασσαν.
4. ὁτε ἰδε ποιμενα ἐρχομενον, βη μηλα εἰς αὐλην.
5. ἰητροι οὐ γνῶσαν νουσον την / ἥν ἐχεν.
6. ὅτι τλης πολλοισ(ι) μαχεσασθαι, γνων σε ἀγαθον ἐοντα / ἐμμεν ἀνερα.
7. δυω σφεων βησαν κατα ὁδον, δυω προς ποταμον.
8. εἰ κεινο γνῶμεν, οὐκ ἀν ἐλθομεν.
9. ὁτε στητε ἀπανευθε, δοκησατε μαλα ὀλιγοι.
10. τίς ὑμεων τλη παιδα ἑλεμεν ἐκ πυρος;
1. He saw the cities of many men and knew (i.e. came to know) their mind.
2. Now we are the sons of God, and it is not yet evident what we shall be. We know that we shall be like to God, because we shall see Him as He is. (1 John 3.2)
3. None indeed of mortals was born who does not toil. (Euripides, Fragment)
4. If there should be a need either to do wrong or to be wronged, I would choose rather to be wronged than to do wrong. (Plato, Gorgias 469c)
5. But he is blessed whom the Muses love as their own (middle voice); from his mouth flows a sweet voice. (Hesiod, Theogony 96-7)
6. One man is (i.e. becomes) wise from another both in the past and now(adays), for it is not easy to find the gates of unspoken words. (Bacchylides, Poem 8, Edmonds NB. In other words, wisdom normally comes through others, not through original discovery.)
7. Whatever a child learns, those things will doubtless be saved (i.e. remembered) to old age. (Euripides, Suppliants 916-7)
8. Do not live (sg.) as though (you were) going to live for ever. Death is at hand; while you live, while you are (still) able, be / become good. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations)
9. And Goliath stood up and went to meet David. And David stretched out his hand to his vessel and took thence one stone, and he slung (it) and struck Goliath on his forehead, and the stone entered through (his) helmet to his temple, and he fell on his face to the ground / earth. (1 Kings 48-49, LXX)
1. πυθομενοι θανατον σων δυω υἱων, βουλομεθα ἐλθειν
/ ἱκανειν, ἀλλα μηκος
ὁδου οὐκ ἐασεν.
2. εἰ υἱον ἀνακτος γαμησε / γημε, νυν μαλα μακαρ ἀν ἠεν / πελετο.
3. δειδον / δεισα εἰσελθμεναι, (ἱνα) μη εἰς πυρ πεσοιμι και ἀπολοιμην.
"My dramas are but slices cut off from the great banquet of Homer's poems."
(Aeschylus, quoted by Athenaeus 347e)
Corrigendum: In question 11 τῆλναι should read τλῆναι.
1. Know that they have not yet gone.
2. To endure some pain on account of a dear woman is sweet to the (man) loving.
3. No one saw him as he entered into the river, where he perished.
4. If you (sg.) were to stand there, you would escape both the rain and the wind.
5. Although (you are) knowing many things, I could still teach you many others.
6. I long indeed to go to the topmost rock, but I do not dare.
7. Stand where you (pl.) are, until the king passes.
8. The stranger gave all sorts of gifts to us, that we might know that he is very friendly to us.
9. I will never leave my comrades who have endured strong pains with me.
10. I suppose he went to the war, but I do not know.
11. Tell (sg.) those being sent what they must endure.
1. εἰ κε νουσος χαλεπη φεροι ἡμιν ἀλγος, χρη ἡμεας τληναι ὡς ἀνδρας.
2. στηθι ἀπανευθε ἀλλων / ἑτερων, ὁπως ἰδω σε μουνον.
3. βαιης εἰς ἱερον και ποροις Ἀπολλωνι δωρα ἡμετερα, ἐφη / λεξε / εἰπε.
4. τίς κε τλαιη ἀπολεσαι δενδρεον οὑτως καλον;
5. σταντα ἐγγυς ὁδου δια παντος ἠματος, νυν βαινει μηλα εἰς αὐλην.
6. ἐλπω / ἐλπομαι μεγαν τον θησαυρον εὑρειν εἱνεκα τοιο / οὕ πολλοι μαχ(ε)εοντο και θνησκον / θανον.
7. τοδε γνωτε· ὁτι οὐ ποτε λειψω μευ ὑιεας.
8. πονους πολεμου τλας, νυν ποθεει εἰρηνην.
9. εἰ (ἀν) παντα γνοιην, οὐ (κε) θνητος πελοιμι ἀλλα θεος.
10. και εἰ βαῖτε ἀν εἰς ἀλλην γαιαν, ἐτι φιλεοιτε (κε) τηνδε πατριδα περι πασαων.
Corrigendum: The vocabulary item θλυψις should of course read θλιψις.
1. All men long by nature to know. (Aristotle, Metaphysics 1.1)
2. What I do not know, these things I do not even imagine I know. (Plato, Apology 21d)
3. Know thyself. (Thales; Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker 1.72)
4. You (sg.) could not go twice into the same river. (Heraclitus; quoted by Plato, Cratylus 402b)
5. It is shameful to be rich and to know nothing else. (Euripides, Fragment)
6. I am not able to supply you, O heart, with everything that you desire; endure it patiently, (for) not alone do you yearn for something of fine things. (Theognis, Elegies 695.6)
7. What is it then to live? Shall we not say that it is the work of the soul? (Plato, Republic 369d)
8. Through many afflictions it is necessary for us to enter into the kingdom of God. (Acts, 14.22)
9. For it is necessary to love that man whom God loves. (Greek Anthology)
1. τί στῆς ἐπι της πετρης
αὐτης ἀπο ἥς σος κασιγνητος πεσων ἀπολετο;
2. παρελθοντες ποταμον, εὑρομεν ὁδον εὐρειαν και ὀρθην, και βημεν αἰψα κατα την προς θαλασσαν.
3. λεξον το / ὅ ἐστιν ἐν σειο νοῳ, ἱνα παντες γνωωμεν ὅ τι πιστευεις περι τωνδε.
ἐπὶ τοίνυν ἐπῶν ποιήσει, Ὅμηρον ἒγωγε μάλιστα τεθαύμακα
(Socrates in Xenophon, Memorabilia)
I am the vine, you the branches. Whoever remains in Me and I in him, that man bears much fruit. But apart from Me, you will be able to do nothing, just like a branch if it does not remain on the vine. Remain in Me, and I (will remain) in you; if you remain in Me and My words remain in you, (then) whatever you wish, ask for (middle voice), and it shall be to you. (John 15.4-7)
Corrigendum: In question 7 below it should be indicated that the 2nd person plural is expected.
1. δωρα και ἀλλα δεξαμεθα ἀπο / παρα
2. μεινατε· μη λιπετε ἀμμε, ὀφρα μη ἀπολωμεθα.
3. κρατερος ἀνεμος πολλα δενδρεα βαλεν ἐπι γαιαν.
4. εἰ / ἠν ποροιμι σοι χρυσον ἤ ὀλβον, τί ἑλοιο (ἀν);
5. ἠν μη τῃδε συν οἱ μενῃς / μενητε, φευξεται εἰς ἑην πατριδα.
6. ὅττι ῥεζῃς, εὐ ῥεζε.
7. κυθον παντα σφέων χρηματα, ὡς μη τι λαβοιτε (act.) / λαβοισθε (mid.).
8. πεμψαμεν δυω ἑταιρους ἱνα σφισι ἐνεικειαν σιτον και ὑδωρ και οἰνον.
9. βαλοντες περ πετρην πολλῃ βιῃ, δενδρεου ἁμαρτε.
10. ὅτι συ (το) κελευσας, προφρων πιθομην.
1. This (saying) "know thyself" means (lit. is) to know your deeds and
what it is necessary for you to do. (Menander, Fragment)
2. I am the living bread that has come down from Heaven. If anyone should eat of this bread, he will live for ever. And the bread which I shall give is My flesh for the life of the world. (John 6.5)
3. Beloved, if God so loved us, it is necessary that we also love one another. (1 John 4.11)
4. For if God is for us, who (is) against us? (He) who in fact did not spare His own Son, but gave Him for the sake of all of us how will He not also give us all things with Him? (Romans 8.32)
5. But what could I do? For God accomplishes His will through all things. (Iliad 19.90)
6. It is necessary for a mortal to bear the necessities (sent) from the gods.
1. ὀϊομαι σφεας παρα ποταμον βηναι ὀφρα εὑρον χρυσον
τον / ὅν ὑπο
2. ἀναξ εὐ βουλευσε ὁπως μαχεσ(σ)αμενος ἀπολεσειεν ἐχθρους και λαον ἑον σωσειεν.
3. οὐ τλας μειναι, στη ἀπανευθε ἑτερων, και οὑτως λαθε ἡμεας.
"To have to spend one's time with the poets, in all their number and excellence, but especially with Homer, the most admirable and godlike of poets, and to come to understand not only his words but his mind and outlook that indeed is an enviable thing!"
(Plato, Ion 530b-c)
Corrigenda: A number of verbs are introduced here for which no English translation is offered: ῥιπτω (introduced in Lesson 109) means "I hurl"; στελλω means "I equip, get ready, despatch"; αὐξανω (a non-Homeric verb, equivalent to ἀεξω) means "I increase".
1. pf. 3 pl. they have ordered
2. pf. 2 sg. you have trusted / believed
3. pf. 1 pl. we have entered
4. pf. 1 pl. we have stumbled
5. plpf. 3 sg. he had beaten
6. plpf. 2 pl. you had ceased
1. pf. 2 pl. you have thought / perceived
2. pf. 3 pl. they have seized
3. pf. 1 pl. we have considered
4. plpf. 2 sg. you had loved
5. plpf. 3 sg. he had made
6. plpf. 2 pl. you had married
1. pf. 2 sg. you have judged
2. plpf. 1 sg. I had gone
3. plpf. 3 sg. he had died
4. pf. 3 pl. they have known
5. pf. 1 sg. I have thrown
6. pf. 2 pl. you have missed / erred
1. pf. 3 sg. he has fled
2. plpf. 2 pl. you had left
3. plpf. 3 sg. he had come
4. plpf. 2 sg. you had perished (NB. In both its perfect active and its middle, ἀπολλυω means "I perish".)
5. pf. 2 pl. you have seen
6. pf. 3 pl. they have become
1. I have seen many things, but nothing so beautiful.
2. You had all gone when I came.
3. He seems to be a true friend.
4. The wife of my brother had not come at all.
5. We have known his love was true through his good deeds.
6. The storms had loosed the stones; therefore many were falling.
7. The king perished in war, not in fact by force but by trickery.
8. They did not harm the women; for it was not fitting.
9. Death has freed the soul from the body.
10. Why do you fear difficult things indeed, but not shameful ones? (NB. The perfect of δειδω has a present sense.)
1. προφρονες εἰληλουθαμεν.
2. οὐδεις σφεων ἑωρακει ποτε μηλον.
3. χρηματα φιλεειν ἀρχη ποτε ἐστι πολλων κακων.
4. δυω ἐμων υἱεων εἰς πολεμον βεβηκασιν / εἰληλουθασιν· ἑτερος ἐτι συν ἐμοι μενει.
5. ἐοικεν ἀλλοισ(ι) πιστευειν, και μη ὀϊεσθαι δολον ἐν πασι / παντεσσι ἐργοισ(ι) σφεων.
6. τί κακοι |οὐ πω / οὐκ ἐτι| ἀπο / ἐκ γαιας ἀπολωλασιν;
7. ἐγνωκε σευ δολον ἀπο ἀρχης.
8. ποῦ ποτε ἑωρακας δενδρεον οὑτως ὑψηλον;
9. παιδες |οὐ πω / οὐκ ἐτι| εἰληλουθεσαν ὁτε λιθος πεσεν.
10. φαος ἐῳκει ἠελιῳ ἀπο / ἐξ οὐρανοιο πιπτοντι.
Corrigendum: Vocabulary item πεπιστευχα should read πεπιστευκα.
1. A good man, as is fitting, also makes others good. (Menander, Fragment)
2. I have come (as) a light into the world, that everyone who believes in Me may not remain in the darkness. (John 12.46)
3. But who (ever) trusts a woman, that man in fact trusts craftiness / trickery. (Hesiod, Works and Days 375)
4. Jesus says to him, "Because you have seen Me, have you believed? Blessed (are) those who, not having seen, have believed." (John 20.29)
5. I have found (it)! (Archimedes; in Plutarch, Moralia, vol. 2, p. 1094c.)
6. Having died, they are not dead (i.e. their heroism has immortalized them). (Simonides, Poem 121, Diehl)
7. And God spoke to Moses again: "Thus you will announce to the sons of Israel, 'The Lord God of your fathers, the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, has despatched me to you.'" (Exodus 3.15, LXX)
8. In this have we known the charity of God, that He died for our sake. Therefore we also ought to die for the sake of our brothers. (1 John 3.16)
1. σιτον τινα που τῃ
λιπες, ἱνα ἑταιροι ἐμοι εὑροντες φαγοιεν,
εἰ (κεν) ἐλθοιεν.
2. μη στητε ἐν φαει, ἀλλα κυθεσθε μετα δενδρεοισι ὀφρα παρελθῃ. (NB. A purpose clause should be used after ὀφρα when it is anticipatory; see Lesson 24.)
3. ποιμην ἀμειψατο ἀμμιν εἰρομενοις μηλων τινα βηναι ἐις ποταμον και ἀπολεσθαι, ἄλλα δε θανειν παρα ὁδον, και δυω μουνα ἐτι μεινεμεναι ἐν αὐλῃ.
χρὴ συγχωρεῖν Ὅμηρον ποιητικώτατον εἶναι καὶ πρῶτον
(Plato, Republic 607a)
1. Rejoicing I received my brothers who had come home from the war.
2. Stay away from the fire, lest you (pl.) perish.
3. To have freed a friend from pain, either of the body or of the soul, is a noble thing.
4. Be gone (sg.); for if I see you again near my house, I shall throw you into the river.
1. ἐφη / λεξε γυναικα
εἰληλουθ(ε)μεν ἐκ μεσ(σ)ου οἰκου
φερουσαν σιτον ὑδωρ τε.
2. θανατον λεξε ἀγαθοις ἐμμεν πυλην εἰς ζωην (τε) και ὀλβον.
3. δυω ποιμενες ἐοικασιν ἐρχεσθαι, ὀφρα που λελυκωσι ἑα μηλα ὑπο δενδρεου.
4. ἀνακτος κασιγνητος θανε / τεθνηκε μαχ(ε)ομενος, ὀφρα μη ἀναξ ἀπολλυοιτο αὐτος.
Jesus said: "I am the resurrection and the life; whoever believes in Me, even if he die, shall live (middle form of future), and everyone living and believing in Me shall never ever die. Do you believe this?" Martha says to Him: "I have believed that You are the Christ, the Son of God, who has come (lit. having come) into this world." (John 11.25-27)
1. What man of (lit. out of) you, having a hundred sheep and having lost
one of them, does not leave all the others and go after this one (sheep) who is
lost, until he find him? And, having found (him), brings (him) to (his) home
rejoicing and bids his friends and neighbours to come, saying to them: "Rejoice
with me, because I have found my sheep who was lost." (Luke 15.5-7)
2. But I know this, that if all men were to bring their misfortunes together in public (lit. into the middle), wishing to exchange them with their neighbours seeing the misfortunes of (their) neighbours, each would gladly carry off again (middle voice) what they had brought along. (Herodotus, History 7.152)
3. Let us love one another, since love is from God, and everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. But whoever does not love, has not known God; because God is love. (1 John 4.7-8)
1. ἑωρακατε ποτε οὑτως ἀγαθον ἀνερα; ἐῳκει πετρῃ ἐν μεσῃ θαλασσῃ
(παλιν και παλιν) βαλλομενῃ
|ἀνεμῳ ἠδε ὀμβρῳ / ὑπο ἀνεμοιο ἠδε ὀμβρου|. ἀλλος τις φυγεν ἀν, κεινος δε μενειν
τλη και μαχ(ε)εσθαι.
2. ζητεω ἀληθειην εὑρειν, ἥ ποτε ἡδεια μεν πελεται, ποτε δε χαλεπη αἰει δε μοι χρηστη ἐστιν.
Corrigendum: Napoleon's palindrome should read: "Able was I ere I saw Elba".
"It's strange, Socrates, but a fact, that when people are discussing any other poet I simply can't apply my mind or add any remarks of intelligent worth, but unconsciously fall off to dozing; but as soon as anyone mentions Homer, I am instantly awake and all attentive and full of things to say."
(Ion, in Plato, Ion 532c)
Section 339 (d. Drill)
1. We have built ourselves a house beside the sea.
2. The boy was lying on the ground, wishing to escape the notice of those passing by.
3. The treasure is indeed well hidden; for it has never been seen by anyone.
4. The shepherd had released (middle voice) his sheep, that they might roam along the river.
5. We heard of the works of that man, but no one was then desiring to seize him. (NB. Recall that the infinitive of the strong aorist active may end either in ...ειν or ...εειν; see section 284.)
6. Why have you built yourselves a gate so high?
7. You were lying no doubt under a tree, while the others were labouring.
8. From the beginning we have / had been known by the king.
9. The house had not yet been built when a storm destroyed it.
10. "Why are you (pl.) lying there", he said, "and not coming with us?"
1. δυω ἐμων ἑταιρων λελυαται / λελυνται και νυν φευγουσιν.
2. ἑωρασθε, εἰπε. αἰψα κυθεσθε.
3. γυνη κειτο παρα ποταμῳ, ὁραουσα εἰς ῥεον ὑδωρ.
4. οἰκος εὐ τετυκτο, αὐταρ οὐκ ἐην καλος.
5. εἰ μη θεμις δοκησε / δοκεε τοδε ἐχειν, οὐ κεν αὐτο αἰτησαμεν.
6. τί κεισαι οὑτως ἐγγυς πυρος;
7. ἑωραντο, οὐδεις δε σφεας διωξεν.
8. ποῦ τετυξαι οἰκον σευ;
9. (κεινος) ἀνηρ ὅς κασιγνητον μευ βαλε πετρῃ οὐ ποτε ἐγνωσται.
10. μετα ὀμβρον, πολλα μακρα δενδρεα ἐπι γαιῃ κειτο.
1. The God of the Hebrews has called us to Himself. Let us travel therefore a
journey of three days into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to our
God. (Exodus 3.18, LXX)
2. I have been crucified along with Christ. (Galatians 2.20)
3. Your life has been hidden with Christ in God; but when Christ, our life, appears / shows Himself, then you also will appear with Him in glory. (Colossians 3.3-4)
4. Having drunk much (lit. many things) and having eaten much and having said many bad things about men, I lie (here) Timocreon of Rhodes. (Simonides, Poem 110, Edmonds Edmonds cleverly renders: "Your tippling o'er, your guttling done, you're lying still, Timocreon.")
5. Jesus said to Pilate: "I am indeed a king; for this have I been born and for this have I come into the world, that I may bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice. But My kingdom is not of this world." (John 18.36-37)
1. βεβηκετε· εἰ γαρ παλιν
(κεν) ἐλθητε και πειραητε τι λαβ(ε)ειν, αἱρησω ὑμεας
και οἰσω προς ἀνακτα.
2. οὐ ποτε σφεας ἑωρακεα / ἑωρακη, ἀλλα σφεας εἰς οἰκον εἰληλουθοτας αἰψα γνων υἱους ἐμμεναι / ἐοντας κασιγνητου ἐμου, και χαιρων δεξαμην.
"Homer excels all others in skill and artistic taste in constructing plots, in diction, and in realistic character portrayal."
(Aristotle, Poetics 1451a, 1459b)
1. The king did not know that we had been seen and were being pursued.
2. Lie on both sides of the house, lest anyone entering should elude you.
3. We were trying to find them, but they had gone.
4. All my sons have been born in this same house.
5. May justice and love and peace come (once and for all) among all men.
6. Many fruits, having been loosed from the trees, fell to the earth.
7. You greatly feared, no doubt, lest somehow we had gone.
8. Nothing so sweet have we ever known as the love of our mothers.
9. Having killed a certain man, he has gone to another country.
10. Your (sg.) brother seemed much indeed like my father.
1. ἀπανευθε ὑπο δενδρεῳ
κειμενοι, ἰδομεν μιν χρυσον κευθοντα /
2. εἰπε ὁδον τετυχθαι ἀπο ποταμου προς θαλασσαν.
3. οὐ ποτε ἑωρακε ἑον πατερα, ὅς ἐτι ἀπεστι / ἀπανευθε ἐστι, ἐν πολεμῳ μαχ(ε)ομενος.
4. κεισο ἐγγυς νηου ὀφρα παρελ(υ)θωσιν· ἐνθεν / τοτε / ἐπειτα φευγε.
5. μητηρ ἐμη εἰς οἰκον βεβηκει / εἰληλουθει, κασιγνητος δε μευ και ἐγω συν φιλοισι (ἡμεων) μειναμεν.
6. ἐπει εἰληλουθασιν ὡς ἑταιροι, χρη ἡμεας δεξασθαι σφεας.
7. ῥηιδιον ἐστιν ὀλβον ζητεειν, χαλεπον δε τον / μιν εὑρειν (τε) και ἐχειν (act.) / ἐχεσθαι (mid.).
8. παθομεν, ὁπως (ὑμεις) μη ἀπολωλοιτε / ἀπολοισθε.
9. ἀνακτα λυσαντες / λελυκοτες, ἀγαγον (μιν) εἰς σφετερην πατριδα.
10. οὐκ ὑμεας κτενεομεν, ὅτι εἰληλουθατε ὡς ἀληθεες φιλοι πατ(ε)ρος μευ.
1. It is necessary for a man lying in grievous woes to endure patiently, and to
ask relief from the immortal gods. (Theognis, Elegies 555-556)
2. No one has ever yet seen God. But if we love one another, God remains in us, and the love of God is fulfilled in us. God is love, and whoever remains in love, remains in God, and God remains in him. (1 John 4.12, 16)
3. The light has come into the world, but men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their deeds were wicked. For everyone doing wicked things hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his deeds be judged; but whoever does the truth, comes to the light, that his deeds may be revealed, because they have been done in God. (John 3.19-21)
1. κεινος ὅς ἀν ζωῃ ἐν ἀληθειῃ ἐοικε ἀνθρωπῳ
ὁ / ὅς τετυκται οἰκον ἑον ἐπι πετρης. εἰ γαρ
και ὑδατα λελυμενα ἐξ οὐρανου και ὀμβροι ἀνεμοι
τε (ἀν) βαλλωσι τον / μιν, οὐ πεσεεται· εὐ γαρ
τετυκται ἐπι πετρης.
2. οὐ ποτε σε ἐγνωκεα, οὐδε πόθεν εἰληλουθης. (NB. Translate "or" as "nor".)
ἅλις πάντεσσιν Ὅμηρος
(Theocritus, Idylls 16.20)
1. You (sg.) indeed spoke things most true.
2. If there had been more of us (lit. if we were more), they would not have fought (us) but woud have fled.
3. Of all men those were the most worthless / wicked.
4. No one ever was of greater cunning (genitive of quality).
5. They suppose / imagine their house to be the finest and greatest.
6. This shepherd leads more sheep than that one.
7. Of all women the best and most beautiful and the dearest to me was my mother.
8. That river is swifter indeed, but this one has more water.
9. Many once thought / supposed Zeus to be the father and the greatest of the gods.
10. All our possessions were destroyed by / in the second fire.
11. My father saw deeds more shameful than any (lit. all) which I had ever seen myself.
12. Children always want to eat the sweetest fruits.
1. ἐλπετε / ἐλπεσθε που δεξασθαι πλειονα δωρα ἤ δεξασθε.
2. κεινο δενδρεον ὑψηλοτατον ἠν παντων τα / ἅ ποτε ἑωρακα.
3. ἀμεινον / ἀρειον ἐστιν ἐμμεναι ἐσθλον ἤ δοκεειν ἐσθλον εἰναι. (NB. Use the same accusative and infinitive construction for ἀρειον ἐστιν as for χρη.)
4. πλειστον χρυσον πορε πρωτῳ (τε) και ταχιστῳ ἐμοι (ἀυτῳ).
5. ὁδος μακροτερη ἠεν ἤ (κε) πιστευοις.
6. στησαν ἐπι ἀκροτατῃ πετρῃ, πειραοντες θαλασσαν ἰδ(ε)ειν.
7. ἀριστος ἠν ἀνηρ τον / ὅν ποτε γνων.
8. χρη νυν τευχεμεν ἀληθεα εἰρηνην, εἰ μη ἐθελομεν εἰς δευτερον και μειζονα π(τ)ολεμον πιπτειν / πεσειν. (NB. This is not a Present General Condition. Hence the subjunctive is not used in the protasis.)
9. φιλεω πατερα μευ ὡς ἐσθλοτατον / καλλιστον ἀνδρα τον / ὅν ποτε ἐγνωκα.
10. τληθι· ἀλλοι ἀνεσχοντο και πλειονα και χαλεπωτερα ἀλγεα.
1. Wise (was) Sophocles, and wiser (was) Euripides, but the wisest of all men
(was) Socrates. (In Suidas, Lexicon Magnum, under σοφός)
2. For he wishes not to seem the best, but to be (so). (Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 592)
3. More people (are) good by training than by nature. (Critias, Poem 6)
4. Yet second thoughts are somehow wiser. (Euripides, Hippolytus 436)
5. For the first and the best of all victories is for someone to conquer himself. (Plato, Laws 626e)
6. Of all possessions, the best is a good friend. (Xenophon, Memorabilia 2.4.1)
7. It is difficult not to love, and it also difficult to love, but the most difficult of all is for the lover (lit. the one loving) to be unsuccessful. (Anacreontic, No. 27, Bergk)
8. Water indeed is best. (Pindar, Olympian Odes 1.1)
1. ἐγνωκας ποτε τινας οὑτως ταχεας
δεχεσθαι ἀλγεα εἱνεκα ἀλλων;
2. εἱς (μεν) νηος τετυκτο Διι ἐγγυς θαλασσης, δευτερος (δε) Ἀπολλωνι μετα δενδρεοισιν.
3. πατερες ἡμετεροι ἠσαν ἀγαθοι (τε) και δικαιοι, και λιπον ἡμιν πατριδα ἐσθλην ἐν ῇ νυν ζωομεν μακαρες.
Ἄστρα μὲν ἠμαύρωσε καὶ ἰερὰ κύκλα σελήνης
"Just as the fire-flaming sun blots out into darkness the stars and the holy sphere of the moon, as he spins his wheels across the sky, so also does Homer, raising aloft the brightest Muses' beams, dim into oblivion the glory of all the flock of poets."
(Leonidas of Tarentum, in The Greek Anthology, 9.24)
1. You (sg.) spoke wisely in fact, but (your) father even more wisely.
2. Somehow he threw a great stone the longest distance / a very long distance.
3. Come (sg.) with me; for otherwise I shall not even go myself.
4. We saw the house indeed, but we did not go in(side).
5. If men were to live justly with each other, they would no doubt have peace.
6. Since the king is so good, why do you (pl.) not love him more?
7. We were all rejoicing greatly when we learned that you (sg.) would come.
8. Having remained here through the whole of the tenth night, they quickly / suddenly fled just as (lit. at the same time as) day was appearing.
9. You (pl.) did nobly indeed, saving my mother from a most shameful death.
10. Bring (pl.) water very / most quickly, lest everything perish by fire. (NB. ἐνεικατε must be imperative, not indicative, as the purpose clause uses the subjunctive, not the optative.)
Corrigendum: The first word in exercise 2 should read "I" not "1".
1. ἰδομεν φαος μεγα ταχεως πιπτον δια οὐρανου.
2. πλειον κε πονησαμην εἰ πλειονα χρονον σχον / σχεθον.
3. ὅς τις πρωτος ἐρχηται / ἐλθῃ, δωρον δεξεται μεγιστον.
4. ὑδωρ ταχιστα πεσε / πιπτε δευτερῃ νυκτι.
5. κεισο ἀπανευθε και εὐ κυθεο.
6. ἀνεμοι μεγαλοι οἰκον μεγαλως / μαλα βαλλον.
7. πλειστα (συ) εὑδεις παντων παιδων τους / οὕς ποτε ἐγνωκα.
8. πρωτον / πρωτα (μεν) οἰκεομεν ἀπανευθε θαλασσης, νυν δε μαλα ἐγγυς. (NB. Use the imperfect tense for "we dwelt".)
9. ὁτε (ἀν) ὀμβρος πιπτῃ, ποταμοι θασσον ῥεουσιν.
10. παντες ταχιστα εἰληλουθατε, και μαλα / μεγαλως ἡδομαι.
1. But it seems to me to be more difficult to find a man bearing good things
nobly than (it is to find a man bearing) bad things (nobly). (Xenophon)
2. Surely the gods do not reveal all things to mortals from the beginning, but in time by seeking we find (them) out better. (Xenophanes, Poem 18)
3. But from (their) works do men become wealthy, and by toiling (do they become) much dearer to the immortals. (Hesiod, Works and Days 308-9)
4. A man is raised up higher, that he may fall more swiftly. (Menander, Fragment)
5. How poorly fares (lit. is) every physician if no one is poorly. (Menander, Fragment)
6. To live is not something great, but to live well. (Plato)
1. ἀνηρ ὅς σωσε πατερα ἐμον εἰς θαλασσαν πεσοντα ἠεν ἀριστος και
ἐσθλοτατος / καλλιστος
(ἀνθρωπος) τον / ὅν ποτε ἐγνωκα.
2. αἱρεοιμι (ἀν) κακα πασχειν, οὐ δε ῥεζειν κακα· ἐσθλοτατον / καλλιον γαρ (ἐστιν).
3. κασιγνητος μευ ἐλπει / ἐλπεται τευξειν (fut. act.) / τευξεσθαι (fut. mid.) μειζονα ἠδε καλλιονα οἰκον και ἐν τῳ οἰκησειν συν ἑῃ γυναικι και παισι ὀφρα (κε) θανῃ. (NB. Use the future infinitive with ἐλπω / ἐλπομαι.)
Ὅμηρος ἐστιν ὁ πολυφωνότατος ἁπαντῶν τῶν ποιητῶν.
(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On Style, ch. 16)
1. Many physicians are labouring that you (sg.) may be
freed from this great pain.
2. We were seen and pursued, but we eluded them.
3. Time is for mortals the physician of all ills and pains.
4. Hide yourselves quickly, lest you be known to be present.
5. Surely the father rejoiced very much, having received (his) son back from the war.
6. I fear lest under / by more rain those stones be loosed and fall.
7. If you (sg.) had remained in the house, as I commanded you, you would not have been seen.
8. I was trying to escape the king's notice, but I was very quickly discovered (lit. known). (NB. πειραω is often used in the middle voice with the same sense as the active.)
9. His hands indeed appeared out of the water, but (his) other limbs were all hidden.
10. Be good, that whenever she sees you, your mother may rejoice.
11. Whoever does not shrink from doing wrong is base / wicked.
1. ὑδωρ λυθη και πεσε εἰς θαλασσαν.
2. λεγε το / ὅ ἰδες, ὀφρα πασα ἀληθειη φανῃ.
3. ὁραοντες μιν, χαρημεν και ἑλομεν τοιο χειρα.
4. ἑταιροι μευ ὀφθησαν μεν, οὐ δε ἐγων.
5. φαγειν μελλον ὁτε φανητε ἀπανευθε ἐν ὁδῳ.
6. ἀειρατε δενδρεον, ὁπως λυθωμεν και βηωμεν.
7. κυθωμεν / κρυψωμεν σιτον, ὀφρα μη ὀφθῃ.
8. μενεομεν ἐν οἰκῳ ὀφρα ἐπι / παρα πυλῃ φανητε.
1. Do not judge (others), lest you (pl.) be judged. (Matthew 7.2)
2. As the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, (though) being many, are one body, thus also is Christ. For you are the body of Christ. For even in one spirit we were all baptised into one body. And clearly the body is not one member, but many members; if the says: "Because I am not a hand, I am not (part) of the body", not for this reason (lit. on account of this) is it not (part) of the body. Now there are many members (indeed), but one body. And if one member suffers, all the members suffer along with (it); and if one member receives glory, all the members rejoice with it. (1 Corinthians 12.12-27)
3. For I seek truth, by which no one at all was ever harmed / injured. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations 6.21)
1. χρη ἡμεας ἁζεσθαι πατερα και μητερα
ἡμεων πλειον ἤ τινα ἀλλον, ὅτι
πλειστα φιλεουσι και μακρον πονεονται εἱνεκα ἡμεων.
2. εἰ (κε) τις ἐθελῃ / βουληται ἀναξ ἐσεσθαι ἀλλοισι, χρη (μιν) πρωτον μαθειν ἀγεσθαι ὑπο δικης (τε) και ἀληθειης.
"The heavens shall sooner extinguish their stars, or the sun make bright the face of the night; the sea shall sooner provide men water sweet to drink, and the dead return to the land of the living, than forgetfulness of those ancient pages shall rob us of the far-famed name of Homer."
(Philip of Thessalonica, in Greek Anthology, 9.575)
1. If that stone should ever be loosed and fall, it would kill many
2. There is never any love of something unknown (lit. of what has not been known). (Cp. Virgil's "ignoti nulla cupido".)
3. They / I said that a certain light had appeared far off in the sea.
4. It would no doubt be better for us not to suffer evils; but let us now endure patiently as men.
5. Rejoice (pl.), because we are now closer to our home and friends.
6. They went up to the topmost rock, that they might be seen by all.
7. The sheep long to be released, but the shepherd will not allow (them).
8. I hesitated to speak, lest I appear to be foolish.
9. My brother is wiser than you, but he does not know everything.
10. If you should be seen doing these things, others also would doubtless suppose them to be noble, and would themselves do them.
11. Many things were being destroyed by the storm suddenly unleashed.
12. This man saw and pursued us after we were released (lit. having been released).
13. Having been seen (f.), we hasten away, lest we also be recognised (lit. known).
1. κερδιον (κεν) ἐοικοι μενειν ἐν οἰκῳ ὀφρα ἐλθῃ.
2. παιδες ὀφθεντες φυγον.
3. οὐ θεμις ἐστι φαινειν / φηναι παντα περι ἀνακτος γνωσθεντα.
4. εἰ (ἀν) ὀφθειτε, αἰψα ἀναβητε ἐπι δενδρεον και κυθεσθε.
5. της ψυχη λιλαιεται λυθη(με)ναι ἐκ κακων τουδε κοσμου και εἰρηνην εὑρισκεσθαι / εὑρεσθαι.
6. ἐνεικα σοι ταδε δωρα, ὀφρα χαρειης.
7. εἰπον ξεινου μεγαν δολον γνωσθη(με)ναι ἀπο ἀρχης.
8. μη (ποτε) παλιν φανηθι ἐν τῃδε γαιῃ, ἤ σε κτενεομεν.
9. χαλεπον ἐστι κευθεμεν / κρυπτεμεν ἀπο ἀλλων βουλην ὑπο πολλων γνωσθεισαν. (NB. Translate "to many" as "by many".)
10. εἰ (κε) θανοι, τίς τοτε (ἀν) εἰη / γιγνοιτο ἀναξ;
1. Aristotle, having been asked, "What is a friend?" said, "One soul
two bodies." (Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers 5.21)
2. May truth be present to you (sg.) and to me, the fairest / noblest possession of all. (Mimnermus, Poem 6)
3. How sweet it is for one having been saved to remember (his) trouble. (Euripides, Fragment preserved in Macrobius, Saturnalia 7.2. Cp. Aeneid 1.203: "forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit".)
4. A certain person, having killed a man, was being pursued by that man's friends. And as he was going down the River Nile a wolf approaches (him). Having been frightened, therefore, he went up into a tree alongside the river and hid there. And lying thus he saw a snake approaching. He therefore threw himself into the river. And in it a crocodile, having received (him), ate him. (Aesop, Fables)
5. For to me, to live is Christ, and to die is better. And I long to be freed and to be with Christ. (Philippians 1.21-23)
1. εἰ (κε) γιγνωσκῃς
/ γνωσθῃς ἐμμεν ἀνακτος φιλος, δεξεαι που
μειζονα δοξαν ἀπο / παρα λαου.
2. χρη παντας ἀνθρωπους μαλα / μεγαλως ἁζεσθαι παιδας, ὀλβος γαρ κοσμου καλλιονος κειται ἐν κηρσι / κηρεσσι και χερσι / χειρεσσι των / σφεων.
3. ὁτε (ἀν) / ἐπην ἠελιος φανῃ και παντες ἑταιροι μευ ὀφθωσιν, αἰψα φευξεται.
(Greek Anthology 9.455)
1. pres. act. opt. 1 sg. may I know
2. pres. mid. infin. to come
3. aor. act. subj. 3 pl. if they see
4. aor. act. opt. 2 sg. you would go
5. aor. pass. impt. 2 sg. show yourself!
6. pres. mid. ptc. m. acc. pl. them fighting
7. aor. mid.-pass. opt. 3 sg. may he not take for himself / be taken
8. aor. pass. infin. to be known
9. aor. act. ptc. m./n gen. sg. of one having concealed
10. pres. act. impt. 2 sg. do not sleep
11. aor. act. opt. 2 sg. may you send
12. impf. act. ind. 2 sg. you were pursuing
13. aor. act. infin. to make
14. aor. act. ind./impt. 2 pl. you said / say!
15. aor. pass. opt. 3 sg. may he be released
16. aor. mid. opt. 1 pl. may we receive
17. aor. act. impt. 2 sg. command! (or)
fut. act. ptc. n. nom./acc. sg. being about to command
18. aor. act. infin. to elude
19. pf. act. ind. 3 pl. they have become / been born
20. aor. act. opt. 3 pl. may they come
21. aor. mid. infin. to toil
22. aor. act. ind. 1 pl. we endured (patiently)
23. aor. act. opt. 1 pl. that we might ask
24. pres. mid. ind./impt. 2 pl. you come in / come in!
25. pf. act. infin. to have gone
26. aor. act. opt. 3 sg. that he might save
27. pf. mid.-pass. infin. to have loosed oneself / to have been loosed
28. pres. mid. subj. 3 sg. that he may exult / pray
29. aor. act. opt. 2 pl. please do not flee
30. fut. mid. ptc. f. dat. pl. for them being about to come
31. pres. mid. opt. 3 pl. if they should think
32. aor. act. ind. 3 pl. they did (or)
aor. act. ptc. n. nom./acc. sg. (a thing) having done
33. aor. act. subj. 2 sg. that you may know
34. aor. mid. opt. 2 sg. that you may hide yourself
35. aor. act. ptc. f. dat. sg. for her having sought
36. aor. act. infin. to leave
37. pres. act. opt. 3 sg. may he seize
38. plpf. mid.-pass. ind. 3 sg. he had built for himself / it had been built
39. aor. act. opt. 3 sg. he might stand
40. aor. pass. ptc. f. gen. pl. of them having been released
1. A certain philosopher, having been asked, "Why do philosophers indeed
go / come to the
doors of the rich, but the rich never to the doors of philosophers?" said:
"Because the former (οἱ μὲν, i.e. the philosophers) know those things of which they
are in need, but the
latter (οἱ δὲ, i.e. the rich) know (them) not." (Diogenes
Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers 2.69)
2. A fisherman once caught (lit. took) a small fish. And the fish said to him: "Look, I am quite small. Therefore free me now, and when I have become bigger, seek me then indeed. For it will be much better for you if you do this (lit. for you doing (this))." But the fisherman replied: "But I would clearly be most stupid if, not seizing a present good, I were to pursue an uncertain hope. (Aesop, Fables)
3. May God indeed be the measure of all things for us. (Plato, Laws 716c)
1. μεγα πυρ αἰψα ἀπολεσ(σ)ε οὐλην νηα,
ἀνδρων δε τινες, φευγοντες / φυγοντες δια ὀλιγης θυρης, βαλοντο εἰς θαλασσαν και σωθησαν.
2. πονηροτατον (ἀν) εἰη και αἰσχιστον ἀλγος μεν ἀλεεσθαι μη δε κακα ἐργα.
3. κυθον / κρυψαν νηας τῃ οὐ (κεν) ὀφθειεν, ὅτι οὐκἐτι κρατος οὐδε / ἤ βουλην ἐχοντες δεισαν μαχεσθαι.
". . . Homer, whose touch is always perfect."
(Horace, Art of Poetry, 140)
Corrigendum: ἐλελύκατε in part a. should read ἐλελύκετε.
1. ἐλαβεν aor. act. ind. 3 sg.
2. ἐγνωσθητε aor. pass. ind. 2 pl. (NB. Without the augment the mood might also be subjunctive.)
3. ᾠκησαμεν aor. act. ind. 1 pl.
4. ἐγνωσο plpf. mid.-pass. ind. 2 sg.
5. εἱλκομεν impf. act. ind. 1 pl. (NB. Without the augment the tense might also be present.)
6. ἐβεβηκεα plpf. act. ind. 1 sg.
7. ἐφανησαν aor. pass. ind. 3 pl.
8. ᾑρεον impf. act. ind. 1 sg. / 3 pl.
9. εἰχετε impf. act. ind. 2 pl. (NB. Without the augment the tense might also be present.)
10. ἐλελυσο plpf. mid.-pass. ind. 2 sg.
11. ὠφθη - aor. pass. ind. 3 sg.
12. ἱκανε impf. act. ind. 3 sg. (NB. The tense might also be present, the iota then being short rather than long.)
13. ἠγαγες aor. act. ind. 2 sg.
14. ἐτετυκτο plpf. mid.-pass. ind. 3 sg.
15. ἐλαθομεν aor. act. ind. 1 pl.
16. ἐμαχεσσατο aor. mid. ind. 3 sg.
17. ἠθελον impf. act. ind. 1 sg. / 3 pl.
18. εἱπομην impf. mid. ind. 1 sg.
19. ἐκελευσας aor. act. ind. 2 sg.
20. ἀπωλετο aor. mid. ind. 3 sg.
1. They went up into the ship and seized the king.
2. When the sun appeared, we were seen; therefore we came out and fought / were fighting.
3. I was / they were wishing greatly indeed to see him, but he had gone.
4. Why have you destroyed my companions?
5. Throughout the whole night they lay beside the river, in order to capture your ships as they passed by.
6. Two children / boys were throwing stones into the water.
1. ᾐτησαν ἡμεας αἰψα ἐλ(υ)θειν και σφέας σωσαι.
2. ἀμμε ἠλεετο, ὀφρα μη εἰροιμεθα τί κακον ἐπεποιηκεν.
3. ᾠκεον / ᾠκησαν ἐν οἰκῳ μεγαλῳ ἀπανευθε ὁδου.
4. ηὑρομεν μιν / την ηὑρομεν φοιταουσαν μετα παιδεσσιν / παισιν.
5. τί οὐκ εἰασατε σφεας τι ἐννεπειν / ἐνισπειν;
6. ἐχαρης που πυθομενος μιν ἐτι γιγνωσκειν / γιγνωσκοντα σε και σευ φιλους.
1. Socrates used to pray to the gods not to supply him with gold (n)or silver, but
he prayed (them) only to supply good things, since he considered the gods best knew what
was good for anyone. (Xenophon, Recollections of Socrates 1.3.2)
2. Let us love God, since He Himself first loved us. (1 John 4.19)
3. If one has a beautiful body and a bad soul, he has a beautiful ship and a bad pilot. (Menander, Fragment)
4. And Goliath saw David and esteemed him lightly, because he was a youth and he (was) ruddy with a beauty in (lit. of) (his) eyes. (1 Kings 17.42, LXX)
5. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men the true light, which enlightens every man. And the Word became flesh and dwelt amongst us (and we saw His glory), full of grace and truth. (John 1.1-14)
1. εἰ / ἠν πυρ εἰς τηνδε νηα
βαλοις, την τε και ἀλλας
/ ἑτερας (κεν) ἀπολεσειας , και (κε) σωσειας
που παντας ἑταιρους σευ ἀπο θανατου.
2. ὅς τις εὑρῃ φιλον χρηστον, εὑρικσει ἀγαπην (τε) και κρατος και ὀλβον καλλιστον.
3. ἐλπω / ἐλπομαι σφεας αἰψα ἐλευσεσθαι, ὀλιγος γαρ χρονος ἐτι μενει.
"I've just finished re-reading Homer, who is a better teacher of the good and noble life than your famous philosophers."
(Horace, Letters 1.2.1-4)
1. The stranger was living (ᾤκεε) in the big house beside the sea.
2. I was / they were allowing (εἴαον) him to come, for he desired (to).
3. At first, indeed, you erred; but why don't you try (πειράεις) again, until sometime you answer correctly?
4. Longing (ποθέοντες) for happiness they long (ποθέουσιν) for God; for He is the true happiness of men.
5. What are you doing (ποιέεις)? Come to(wards) me, that I myself may see (ὁράω).
6. He was roaming along the road throughout the whole day.
1. ἀλεῦμην (ἀλέομην) σφεας, δειδων ἤ μαχεσθαι ἤ
2. φερε / ἐνεικον ἡμιν καρπον, ἱνα τον ὁρῶμεν (ὁράωμεν).
3. τοτε εἰρηνη ἐπι γαιῃ φανεῖται (φανέεται), ὅτε (ἀν) παντες (ἀνθρωποι) ποιεωσιν ὅ ἐστιν ὀρθον και δικαιον.
4. πειρᾷ (πειράει) σοφος δοκεῖν (δοκέειν), οὐδεις δε οἱ πιστευει.
5. την λιπομεν φοιτῶσαν (φοιτάουσαν) παρα νηυσι / νηεσσι, δυο ἑους υἱεας ζητοῦσαν / ζητεῦσαν (ζητέουσαν).
6. ὀμβρος ταχεως ῥεῖ (ῥέε) / ἔρρει (ἔρρεε) κατα πετραων ὑψηλοτεραων.
1. That man appears to me to be equal to the gods who sits next to you
and listens to (you) (f.) speaking (φωνέουσης) sweetly nearby.
(Sappho, Poem 2)
2. For Christ will best show (φανέει) His power thus, whenever the sheep get the better of wolves, and (though) being in the midst of wolves and getting many wounds, not only do not perish but lead even those (wolves) to a better life. (St. Chrysostom, Homily 33 on Matthew, Chap. 1)
3. The world is passing (away); but whoever does (ποιέῃ) what God wishes remains for ever. (1 John 2.17)
4. Jesus said: "This is what God wishes that every man who sees (ὁράει) the Son of God and believes in Him have life eternal; and I will rouse him from sleep (ἐγέρεω) on the last day. (John 6.40)
5. Like is always indeed dear to like. Therefore the man both good and just will be dear to God. For he is like (him). (Plato, Laws 716 c-d)
1. ἀνεβημεν και ἐστημεν ἐπι
αὐτῃ πετρῃ τῃ νηος Ἀπολλωνος ἐτετυκτο,
του / οὕ λιθοι
τινες ἐτι ἐπι γαιης
2. εἰ μη ἐθανε νεος, ἀναξ που ἐσθλος και κρατερος κεν ἠεν / ἐπλετο, και πολλα ἀν ἐσχε / ἐσχεθε χρηματα. (NB. νεος was introduced in the Readings of Lesson 41.)
"No one could surpass him (Homer) in elevation of style on the broad plane or in precise handling of details. He wins our admiration alike for his fluency or compactness, his light touches or solemn dignity, his wealth of thought or directness in coming to the point. He is outstanding for oratorical power as much as for sheer poetry. . . . Indeed, has he not so far outrun the reach of human genius in excellence of diction, thought, imagery, and organization of the whole work that it is high achievement not merely to rival his triumphs (which cannot be done) but even to follow them with the mind? Yes, beyond all question, he has far out-distanced all others, and that in every type and form of artistic expression.
(Quintilian, Education of an Orator, 10.146-50)
Corrigendum: The verb ὠθέω has not been introduced. It means "push, thrust".
1. Lying upon a high rock, they used to see the ships passing by.
2. The fruit, having been loosed from the trees, fell.
3. The stone went through the door, and is still lying in the middle of the house.
4. He kept hiding under some tree each of his comrades who had come (lit. having come) towards him.
5. All sorts of lights kept appearing far off in the sky.
6. The mother customarily did not allow (her) children to go into the water, though they were longing to (do so).
7. Did we not keep telling you (sg.) that he was bad?
8. Why did you (sg.) keep fleeing and not stay and fight (lit. and not, having stayed, fight)?
1. καταβηθι εἰς νηα και εὑρε μοι σιτον
τινα. (NB. καταβαινω = I go down.)
2. Σωκρατης αὐτο εἰπεσκε· ζωε αἰει δικαιως.
3. παντες (σφεων) ἀπολοντο / ἀπωλοντο μεσ(σ)ῃ ἐν θαλασσῃ.
4. τί οὐκ ἐασκετε ἡμεας εἰπειν;
5. |ἀμφι οἰκον στητε / ἀμφιστητε οἰκον| ἱνα μηδεις ἐκβηῃ / ἐξελθῃ. (NB. ἐκβαινω and ἐξερχομαι = I go / come out.)
6. γυναικες δειδουσαι ἐχεσκον ἀλληλας χερι.
7. χρυσον |λαμβανεσκομεν ἐκ ποταμοιο / ἐκλαμβανεσκομεν ποταμοιο| και φερεσκομεν προς μευ πατερα.
8. αἰει χαλεπωτατα ῥεζεσκε αὐτος.
1. But Achilles, sitting beside the swift ships, was furious, nor did he ever go into the midst of (his) comrades nor ever into
the war, but he remained
apart, yet kept longing for war. (Iliad, 1.488-491)
2. Never say a boastful word; for no one among men (lit. of men) knows what the night and day will accomplish / bring to pass for a man. (Theognis, Elegies 159-160)
3. How could anyone seize / get anything great (lit. any great things) with few / small toils? (Euripides, Orestes 694)
4. You shall love your God with (lit. in) your whole heart and with your whole soul and with your whole mind; this is the great and first command(ment). And the second is similar: you shall love your neighbour as yourself. (Matthew 22.37-39)
5. The great mind of Zeus is surely the pilot of the life of men dear to himself. (Pindar, Pythian Odes 5.122-123)
1. εἰ / ἠν τις ἐχῃ σωμα μεν καλον
ψυχην δε πονηρην, ἐστιν οἱ νηυς
μεν ἀγαθη, κυβερνητηρ δε κακος.
2. μη ἐατε πατριδα ὑμεων ἀπολεσθαι· μαχεισθε· πειρᾶτε γε την σωσαι, ἐν εἰρηνῃ ὡς και ἐν πολεμῳ.
3. ὁρᾷς σφεας πονευμενους ἀμφι νηα; πειρῶσι ἐργον τῃδε αὐτῃ νυκτι τελεῖν.
"The poetry of Homer, though the earliest of all, is also the greatest."
(Pliny, Letters 2.14)
1. Take a ship, my comrades, and pursue them.
2. We hate you, O coward / bad man, because you fled and did not fight for the sake of your country.
3. May you be just to us, O king.
4. May there be glory to you, (my) good man, and love from all men.
5. What do you have, O boy, in your hand?
6. You will never deceive God in any way, you fools; therefore do not do evil things.
7. Do not strike me, father, though I have done (lit. though having done) wicked things.
8. Don't imagine, my heart, that all things that you long for will happen to you.
9. Unless you hide, O strangers, they will see you and they will seize (you).
10. Tell me, Cyclops, why did you kill my comrades?
1. μη δειδε / δεισον, ξεινε, οὐδεις σε ἀδικησει.
2. χρη ἡμεας ἀλλοισι ῥεζειν (τα) ἅ τινα βουλοιμεθα σφεας ἀμμιν ῥεζειν.
3. αἰει πελεο / πελευ ἀνηρ, υἱε, και ἀληθης φιλοισι σοις φιλος.
4. (ὤ) γυναι, πορε τοδε υἱῳ σῳ (ὡς) δωρον ἀπο ἀνακτος.
5. και τοδε τλῶμεν / τληωμεν, (ὤ) ἀνδρες, ὀφρα ἡμετερη βουλη θασσον τελεηται.
6. πεμποιμην, ὤ ἀναξ, ἐγω γαρ μουνους ὁδον γιγνωσκω.
7. οὐδεις ἔστι βροτων ὅς οὐχ ἑξει / σχησει πολλους πονους ὀφρα ζωει.
8. λεγε, φιλε· ἀληθειη γαρ, και περ οὐκ αἰει ἐουσα ἡδεια, μεγα ἐστιν ἀγαθον.
9. φωνη σφετερη / σφεων (ἐ)φερετο προς αὐτην νηου θυρην· Ζευ και Ἀπολλον, σωσατε ἀμμε. (NB. Use the imperfect passive of φερω, not the aorist passive ἠνεχθην, as it has not been introduced.)
10. (ὤ) ἀνερες ἀγαθοι, μενωμεν τῃδε και τλῶμεν / ἀνεχωμεθα, ὀφρα κελευωμεθα / κελευσθωμεν βηναι.
1. Dear Zeus, I revere you; for you rule over all, having yourself glory
and great power, and well do you know the mind of men and the heart of each,
and your power is the greatest / most great, O king. (Theognis, Elegies
2. Each of us, O men, has been born not only for his father and for his mother, but also for his country. (Demosthenes)
3. I am the way and the truth and the life; no one comes to the Father if not / unless through Me. (John 14.6)
4. Nothing is sweet to me if not also true. (Plato, Euthyphro 14e)
5. Whoever obeys the gods, they (i.e. the gods) greatly heed / give ear to his prayers. (Iliad, 1.218)
1. εἰπεσκε οὐδενα παρειναι,
ἀμμες δε, (τοδε) γνοντες οὐκ ἐον / ἐμμεν ἀληθες,
(ἐ)ζητεομεν ξεινους κατα οἰκον
/ δια οἰκου ὀφρα εὑροιμεν και
ἑλοιμεν σφεας. (NB.
is anticipatory (as here), use a purpose clause construction.)
2. δυω ποταμοι ῥεεσκον εἰς θαλασσαν, τῃ και ἀλληλοισι σφετερα ὑδατα μισγοντες.
3. φανης ἐμμεναι ἀνηρ μεγαλης ἀρετης, ὅτι πειρα(α)σκες, ὀφρα τοδε χαλεπωτατον ἐργον τελεσειας. (NB. See note to question 1 above.)
"Clarissimum deinde Homeri inluxit ingenium, sine exemplo
maximum, qui magnitudine operis et fulgore carminum solus appellari poeta
(Velleius Paterculus, Historia Romana, i.5)
Corrigenda: ἐπιβαινω is not introduced until Lesson 64. It means "I go / land upon". ἀφαιρεω, the middle form of which is introduced in Lesson 63, means "I take away".
1. Everyone supposed that this great stone once fell from the sky.
2. Suddenly the ship was borne away from (their) eyes by the water of the quickly flowing river.
3. What evil did you (pl.) ever suffer at my hands (lit. by me), or anything else which a friend should not do?
4. They had all gone to the war, and not one was still present.
5. The wind threw many trees to the ground with a strong force.
6. Is this gift from you, or from someone else?
7. Stand (pl.) by the door then, until someone comes out and gives you something.
8. I at least desire to remain, but they long to flee.
9. Let us go home, comrades; for we seem able to do nothing here.
10. When you (sg.) came, I was still no doubt sleeping; at least I did not hear your voice.
1. κατ ἀλλους, ἡδ ὁδος ἐστι μακροτερη τε και χαλεπωτερη.
2. νηες κειντ ἐφ ὑδατος μαλ ἐγγυς ἀλληλῃσιν.
3. ἀγαθοι θανοντες περ οὐ ποτε θανεονται, ἀλλ αἰει ἐν νοοις βροτων ζωσουσιν.
4. νυξ ταχεως ἐλθε κατ οὐρανου.
5. ἐοικ ἀγαθος ἠδ ἐσθλος ἑταιρος σοι ἐμμεν.
6. εἰ στης θυρηφιν, ὡς (ἐ)κελευσα, οὐκ ἀν ῥηιδιως οἰκοθεν φυγον.
7. εἰ / ἠν μοι πιστευητε, εἰπεν, παντες μαλα μακαρες ἐσ(σ)εσθε.
8. ὁρατε σφεας ἀπερχομενους / ἀποβαινοντας; ἤ ἡμεας ἐτι μενουσιν;
9. εἰ (κε) μιν μη εὑρῃς, αἰψ ἐρχευ / ἐλθ οἰκονδε.
10. πόθεν εἰληλουθατ', (ὠ) ἀνδρες; λεγετε / εἰπετε.
1. Some say there are nine Muses. How foolishly (they speak)! See, Sappho
from Lesbos is the tenth. (Plato, in Greek Anthology 9.506)
2. O friends, that man in fact is killing me by cunning, and not by force. (Odyssey 9.408)
3. But it is not possible to hide from God. (Odyssey, 16.447)
4. O Zeus, great virtues come to mortals from you. (Pindar, Isthmian Odes 3.4-5)
5. One omen is the best to be a defence about the fatherland. (Iliad 12.243)
6. Not from wealth does virtue come, but from virtue (come) wealth and all other good things to men. (Plato, Apology 30b)
7. O stranger, report to the Lacedaemonians that here we lie, obedient to (lit. obeying) their commands. (Simonides, Poem 119, Edmonds)
1. εἰ / ἠν ἀναξ γενοιμην, ὠ ἑταιροι, ποροιμι (κεν) ἑκαστῳ ὑμεων πολλον χρυσον
και ἁ τινα ἀλλα ἀν βουλοισθε.
2. λεγε / εἰπε μοι ἀληθειην, (ὠ) παι. τί βαλες / τυψας σον κασιγνητον;
3. εὐχωμεθα υἱους ἡμετερους ἐσεσθαι / γενησεσθαι ἀριστους και δικαιοτατους· μεγαλη γαρ ἀναγκη ἀνδρων οὑτως ζωοντων.
"There would not have been so noble a bloom of beautiful style on Plato's philosophical writings, nor would he have so often arrived at poetical levels of expression had he not with all his soul striven with Homer for the prize of excellence, like a young challenger with a famous champion, as it were breaking a lance with him but still profiting from the contest. For he diverted off into his own writings countless rivulets from the great Homeric fountainhead."
(Longinus, On the Sublime in Literature 13.3-4)
As the purpose of this section is to review the actual text, only the relevant section references are provided (unless the answer is not readily apparent).
1. 6 a-c.
2. 8 b
3. 18 b-c
4. 18 d
5. 29 para. 1)
6. 46 and 52. (Answer: (i) nom. sg., (ii) nom. pl., (iii) acc. pl.)
7. 52 para. 1; 53.
8. 60 a-b
9. 69 para. 1
10. 70 a
11. 78 a
12. 78 c
13. 83 c2; 132
14. 83 e
15. 84 a, d; 84 b, c
16. 83 e and 84 a
17. 88 verb map. (Answer: (i) 3 aor., (ii) pf. act., (iii) aor. pass.)
18. 88 verb map. (Answer: (i) subj., (ii) opt. (in Homeric Greek), (iii) impt.)
19. 97 Note 1
20. 106 a; 98 a; 98 b
21. 114 c Note
22. 122 Note
24. 147 and 148.
25. 156 b
26. 156 c
28. 173 b
29. 173 c
30. 181 Note
31. 189 paras. 1 of Type A, B, and C respectively
Corrigendum: ἡδειη in question 26 should read ἡδειῃ with an iota subsript below the final eta.
1. 2 decl. m. dat. pl. by stones
2. 1 decl. f. acc. pl. difficult
3. impf. act. ind. 3 sg. he / she / it was
4. 1 decl. f. gen. pl. of the beginnings
5. pres. mid. opt. 1 sg. may I learn (by inquiry)
6. impf./aor. mid. ind. 3 pl. they were
7. 1 decl. f. gen. sg. of the noble
8. 3 decl. n. dat. sg. by fire
9. 3 decl. n. nom./acc. pl. lights
10. pres. act. ind. 2 pl. you are
11. 1 decl. f. nom. pl. winged
12. 2 decl. n. gen. sg. of the work
13. 3 decl. m. acc. sg. willing / eager (or)
3 decl. n. nom./acc. pl. willing / eager
14. pres. mid. subj. 1 pl. let us come
15. 3 decl. f. acc. sg. nature
16. pres. act. infin. to be
17. 3 decl. n. dat. pl. by deeds
18. fut. mid. ptc. m. nom. pl. they being about to fight
19. pres. act. subj. 3 sg. if he errs
20. pres. act. ptc. m./n. dat. pl. to them eating
21. pres. mid. opt. 2 sg. may you endure
22. impf. act. ind. 2 sg. you were
23. pres. act. impt. 2 sg. send! (or)
impf. act. ind. 3 sg. he was sending
24. 1 decl. f. acc. sg. force
25. pres. mid.-pass. infin. to pursue for oneself / to be pursued
26. 1 decl. f. dat. sg. for one sweet
27. pres. act. ind. 2 sg. you are
28. 1 decl. f. acc. pl. virtues
29. pres. act. ind. 3 pl. they take (or)
pres. act. ptc. m./n. dat. pl. to them taking
30. pres. act. subj. 3 sg. in order that he may be
31. 3 decl. m. acc. sg. no one (or)
3 decl. n. nom./acc. pl. none
32. pres. act. ind. 2 pl. you are speaking (or)
pres. act. impt. 2 pl. speak! (or)
impf. act. ind. 2 pl. you were speaking
33. 3 decl. m. acc. pl. being
34. 3 decl. n. dat. pl. by / with words
35. impf. mid. ind. 3 sg. he was replying
36. pres. act. opt. 1 sg. may I see
37. 1 decl. f. gen. sg. of the rock (NB. πετρῃς, with an iota subscript as per the 2nd revision, would be dat. pl.)
38. impf. act. ind. 1 pl. we were
39. 3 decl. m. dat. pl. for the men
40. 3 decl. f. acc. sg. the fatherland
Quegli θ Omero, poeta sovrano.
(Dante, Divine Comedy, Inf. 4,88)
As the purpose of this section is to review the actual text, only the relevant section references are provided (unless the answer is not readily apparent).
2. 235 b
3. 244 (Answer: The aorist active ending.)
4. 244 (Answer: 2nd aorist endings terminate in ον, 1st in α.)
5. 247 a-b
6. 285 a
7. 247 a and 285 (Answer: FMV suppositions are probable, whereas FLV ones are vague and theoretical.)
8. 285 b
9. 321 d
10. 321 a-c (NB. Paras. d and e in Section 321 are presumably to be viewed as exceptions to the "three kinds".)
11. 339 a-d
12. 353 a-d
14. 362 a
15. 362 b and d
17. 391 para. 1 (Answer: impf. ind., aor. ind., and plpf. ind., each in all three voices.)
18. 391 a; 391 c
21. 415 c-d
22. 422 a-c
23. 423 a-d
Corrigenda: Question 5 should read τῳ (8). Question 7 should read τελεῖται (2). Question 12 should read ὧ (2), i.e. with a rough breathing.
1. 2 decl. n. nom./acc. pl. worthy
2. 2 decl. n. nom./acc. pl. most swift
adv. most swiftly
3. fut. act. ind. 1 sg. I will do
1 aor. act. subj. 1 sg. (that) I may do
4. impf. act. ind. 3 sg. he was bearing
pres. act. impt. 2 sg. bear!
5. τίς, τί m./f./n. dat. sg. for whom / what?
τις, τι m./f./n. dat. sg. for someone / something
ὁ, ἡ, το m./n. dat. sg. for him / it
6. pres. mid./pass. ind. 2 pl. you are sending yourselves / you are being sent
pres. mid./pass. impt. 2 pl. send yourselves! / be sent!
impf. mid./pass. ind. 2 pl. you were sending yourselves / you were being sent
7. pres. mid./pass. ind. 3 sg. he is accomplishing for himself / it is being accomplished
8. τί adv. why?
τι adv. somehow
τίς, τί n. nom./acc. sg. what?
τις, τι n. nom./acc. sg. something
9. pres. act. ind. 3 pl. they say
pres. act. ptc. m./n. dat. pl. to them saying
10. pres. act. ind. 2 pl. you throw
pres. act. impt. 2 pl. throw!
impf. act. ind. 2 pl. you were throwing
11. τίς, τί m./f. acc. sg. whom?
τις, τι m./f. acc. sg. somebody
τίς, τί n. nom./acc. pl. what things?
τις, τι n. nom./acc. pl. some things
12. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ m./n. dat. sg. for whom / for which
1. plpf. mid./pass. ind. 3 sg. he had built for himself / it had been built
2. 3 pers. pron. dat. pl. to them
3. 1 aor. act. infin. to do (or)
1 aor. mid. impt. 2 sg. do for yourself!
4. impf. act. ind. 3 sg. he was doing
5. 3 decl. comp. m./f./n. dat. sg. for the better
6. indef. pron. m./f./n. gen. sg. of someone / of something
7. aor. pass. infin. to appear / to be shown
8. 2 aor. act. ind. 2 sg. (iterative) you kept on saying
9. 1 pers. pron. acc. sg. me
10. pres. act. ptc. f. nom. pl. they seeing (NB. ὁρῶσαι is a contraction of ὁραουσαι.)
11. 1 decl. supl. f. gen. sg. of the truest (NB. ἀληθεστάτῃς, with an iota subscript as per the 2nd revision, would be dat. pl.)
12. plpf. act. ind. 3 sg. he had perished
13. 3 aor. act. ind. 2 sg. you stood
14. acc. sg. adapted with special ending -δε to death
15. 2 pers. pron. nom. pl. you
16. pf. act. ind. 1 pl. we have gone
17. 2 aor. act. ind. 3 sg. he eluded
18. indef. relat./interrog. pron. m./f./n. gen. sg. whosesoever / whosesoever?
19. fut. mid. ind. 3 pl. they will come (NB. ἐλευσοντ is an elided form of ἐλευσονται.)
20. adv. basely / wickedly
21. impf. act. ind. 1 pl. we were longing (NB. ἐποθεῦμεν is a contracted form of ἐποθεομεν.)
22. 1 aor. act. impt. 2 sg. do!
23. 3 pers. pron. acc. sg. him / her / it
24. 2 aor. act. ind. 3 sg. he threw (or)
2 aor. act. impt. 2 sg. throw! (NB. βαλ is an elided form of βαλε.)
25. impf. act. ind. 1 pl. (iterative) we kept on allowing
26. 2 decl. comp. m. acc. pl. (them) worse
27. pf. act. ind. 3 pl. they have become
28. interrog. pron. m./f./n. gen. pl. of whom? / of which?
29. pres. act. ind. 2 sg. you are allowing (NB. ἐᾷς is a contracted form of ἐαεις.)
30. gen. sg. adapted with special ending -θεν from God
31. pres. mid. ind. 3 sg. he is toiling (NB. πονεῖται is a contracted form of πονεεται.)
32. indef. relat./interrog. pron. m. acc. sg. whomever / whomever?
33. pf. mid.-pass. ind./impt. 2 pl. you are lying / lie!
34. 2 aor. act. ptc. m./n. gen. sg. of one suffering
35. 3 pers. pron. acc. sg. him / her / it
36. aor. pass. ind. 1 sg. I was seen
37. dat. sg. adapted with special ending -φι by force
38. pres. act. ind. 2 pl. you are trying (or)
pres. act. impt. 2 pl. try! (or)
impf. act. ind. 2 pl. you were trying (NB. πειρᾶτε is a contracted form of πειραετε.)
39. 1 aor. mid. ind. 2 sg. you fought
40. interrog. pron. m./f./n. dat. pl. to whom? / to what?
Corrigenda: In Question 15, μαρ should read ἦμαρ. In Question 18, διώκειν should read διώκων. In Question 40, ὴν should read ἢν.
1. We are clearly the property of the Gods. (Plato, Laws 906a)
2. No one smong (lit. of) men either will exist or has existed who goes to death having pleased everyone. For not even he who rules over mortals and immortals, Zeus, is pleasing to all mortals. (Theognis, Elegies 801-4)
3. God says: "You (pl.) shall be holy, because I am holy." (1 Peter 1.16)
4. All things pass on and nothing remains (unchanged). (In Plato, Cratylus 402a)
5. No one doing wicked things escapes the notice of God. (Menander, Epigrams 582)
6. (He is) a fool who keeps watch over my mind but perceives / considers not his own deeds. (Theognis, Elegies 439-440)
7. Thus we know that we have known God if we keep / observe His commandments. Whoever says that he has known Him, and does not keep His commandments, the truth is not in him. But he who keeps the word of God, truly the love of God is / will be fulfilled in him. (1 John 2.3-5)
8. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end, says God, who am and was and shall be. (Apocalypse 1.8; 21.6)
9. God holds both the beginning and the end and the middle (lit. middles) of all things that are. (Plato, Laws 715e)
10. Whatever things are true, whatever just, whatever holy, whatever good, these things consider; and the God of peace will be with you. (Philippians 4.8-9)
11. For you (sg.) shall learn noble things from noble people; but if you mix with the evil, you will lose even the understanding (lit. mind) which you have. (Theognis, Elegies 35-36)
12. The Muses, seeking (mid.) to get some temple which will never fall, found the soul of Aristophanes. (Plato, Epigrams 18, Edmonds)
13. O Father Zeus, good things indeed grant to us, both (when) praying and not (praying), but evil things may you grant (us) not, even (when) praying (for them). (Plato, Second Alcibiades 143a)
14. The souls of the just are in the hand of God, and never will distress seize hold of them. They seemed in the eyes of the foolish to die, and their death was considered (to be) destruction. But they are in peace, because God tried them and found them worthy of Himself. (Wisdom 3.1-5)
15. This ought not to escape your notice, that one day with (lit. beside) God is as a thousand years, and a thousand years (is) as one day. (2 Peter 3.8)
16. God is light, and darkness is not in Him at all. (1 John 1.5)
17. Measure (i.e. moderation) (is) best. (In Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers 1.93)
18. For clearly he is never neglected by the gods at least who willingly wishes to become just and, (by) pursuing justice, to be, as far as (is) possible for a man, like to God. (Plato, Republic 613a)
19. If you eat and if you drink and if you do anything, do everything unto the glory of God. (1 Corinthians 10.31)
20. Each man (lit. of men) carries two knapsacks; one in front, the second behind. And the knapsacks are full of evils. But the one which is in front holds the evils of others; and the one which is behind holds the evils of the one himself carrying (it). On account of this, therefore, men do not see the evils of themselves, but they quite easily know (those) of others. (Aesop, Fables)
21. If a friend becomes wicked, it is necessary to lead him back again to the good; for it is better and more the work of a friend to aid (one) to morals than to wealth. (Aristotle, Ethics 1165b)
22. I know (it), and pains lie in my heart (see Section 504 for dative of possession), as I see my country being slain. (Solon, Poem 29a NB. φρην is often used in the plural, φρενες, with exactly the same meaning.)
23. These things I have, which I learned and perceived and got (as) beautiful things from the Muses; but the rest, many and sweet, the wind has snatched away. (Crates, Poem 12 NB. See Lesson 63 for ἀφαιρέομαι.)
24. All things of mortals are mortal, and all things pass us by; but if not, we pass them by. (Greek Anthology 10.31)
25. I command you (pl.) to love one another, as I loved you; thus love one another. In this will all know that you belong to Me / are Mine if you love one another. (John 13.34-35)
26. Rejoice in God always; again I shall say, rejoice, and the peace of God, which is above all understanding (lit. mind), will keep your heart and mind in Christ. (Philippians 4.4-7)
27. Do not marvel if the world hates you. We know that we have gone out from death to life, since we love (our) brethren. Whoever does not love, remains in death, and everyone who does not love his brother is a murderer. (1 John 3.13-15)
28. Greater love than this no one has if one should die for the sake of his friends. You are My friends, if you do what I command you. (John 15.12-14)
29. You (sg.) will find few men, having become friendly comrades in difficulties, who would desire to have a share with you of both good and bad (things). (Theognis, Elegies 79-82)
30. It is better to remain silent and be (sc. a Christian), than to talk and not be (sc. a Christian). It is a fine thing to teach, if he who speaks also acts. (St. Ignatius of Antioch, To the Church at Ephesus 15)
31. The greatest anguish of all among men is this that he who considers (i.e. plans) many things should accomplish not one. (Herodotus, History 9.16 NB. The noun clause is expressed by an accusative and infinitive construction.)
32. Wandering along the sea, Christ saw two brothers, Simon Peter and Andrew, casting (their) net into the sea; for they were fishermen. And He says to them: "Come after Me, and I will make you fishers of men." (Matthew 4.18-19)
33. We brought nothing into this world, nor are we able to carry anything out. (1 Timothy 6.7)
34. One god is the greatest among both gods and men, not in shape (dat.) nor in thought like unto mortals. The whole of him sees (lit. "he sees as a whole", i.e. unlike a composite organism), and the whole of him thinks, and the whole of him hears, and (by) thinking he moves all things without effort with his mind. And he remains always in the same (state), being moved not at all (n. sg. of οὐδεις used adverbially), nor is it fitting for him to change now one way, now another. (Xenophanes, Poems 23-26)
35. The love of Christ urges us on, knowing that One died for the sake of all, in order that those who live may live no longer for themselves but for Christ who died for them and was raised up from the dead. (2 Corinthians 5.14-15)
36. For none of us lives for himself, and none (of us) dies for himself. For if we live, we live for God, and if we die, we die for God. Therefore, if we live or (lit. and) if we die, we are God's. For to this (purpose) did Christ die and lives again, that He may be king of both the dead and the living. (Romans 14.8-9)
37. For many (of) men the doors are not closed to the tongue, and they say many things which they ought not to say. (Theognis, Elegies 421-423)
38. But for a mother children are the anchors of life. (Sophocles, Fragment 685, Pearson)
39. Law is the king of all, both of mortals and immortals. (Pindar, Fragment 169)
40. We know that if the house of our life on earth is destroyed (lit. undone, dissolved), we have from God an eternal house in Heaven (lit. the heavens). Therefore, while we dwell in the body, we are in exile from God. (2 Corinthians 5.1, 6)
"Ful wonder hye on a pileer
(Chaucer, House of Fame 3.1465-6)
Tell me, O Muse, of the man of many turns, who was driven very far, after (lit. when) he (had) sacked the sacred city of Troy. (NB. (i) πολλὰ, used adverbially in n. acc. pl., = "much, greatly"; (ii) since πλαζω can mean "drive astray" as well as "beat", it seems well to translate πλάγχθη in its true passive form.)
Corrigendum: For resourceful-ness read resourcefulness.
1. παντες βουλονται μακαρες ἐμμεναι, οὐ δε παντες ἐθελουσι χαλεπα ἐρδεμεν
τοις / οἵς μουνον / μουνοις ἐχεται ὀλβος ἀληθης.
2. (ὠ) μητερ, |λαβε παιδας και / λαβουσα παιδας| οἰκον(δε) σπευδε· ὁραω γαρ ὀμβρον μεγαν εἰσερχομενον ἀπο θαλασσης.
3. εἰ μαχεσ(σ)ασθε ἀρειον τοτε, ἑλετε / εἱλετε ἀν που Τροιην ἐν ἀρχῃ πολεμοιο.
"Whenever I read Homer, I look at myself to see if I am not twenty feet high."
(Michelangelo, to a friend)
Of many men he saw the towns and came to know their mind, and many woes at sea indeed he suffered in his heart, seeking to gain both his life and the return home of (his) companions. But not even so did he rescue (his) comrades, for all his striving (lit. although striving).
Corrigendum: For the deceptive, anti-christian abbreviation BCE (Before "Common Era") read BC (Before Christ). Frs. Schoder and Horrigan would doubtless have objected vehemently to the intrusion of this modern acronym, so incongruous in a work containing a wealth of quotations from the Sacred Scriptures. "Whosoever therefore shall confess Me before men, him will I confess also before My Father Who is in Heaven. But whosoever shall deny Me before men, him will I also deny before My Father Who is in Heaven." (Mt. 10.33-34)
1. νηες (ἐ)στησαν ἀπανευθε ἐν μεσ(σ)ῳ ποντῳ, ἀναξ γαρ (ἐ)δεισε ἀπο ἀστεος
2. εἰ εἰπον εἰρηνην βουλεσθαι, ἀληθειην οὐκ ἀν ἐνισπον.
3. αἰψα ὑδωρ ἐπι πυρι / πυρος βαλε ὀφρα ἐτι ὀλιγον ἐστιν· οὑτως γαρ χρηματα σειο ῥυσσεαι και που ἀστυ αὐτο.
"Homer florished before Greece florished, and truly it may seeme that, as by him their learned men took almost their first light of knowledge, so their active men received their first notions of courage. Alexander left his Schoole-maister, living Aristotle, behinde him, but took dead Homer with him. The chief thing he ever was heard to wish for was that Homer had been alive."
(Sir Philip Sidney, Defence of Poesie, p. 174)
For they perished by their own senseless folly, the fools; for they (lit. who) consumed (lit. ate completely) the cattle of |the Sun-god, (the son) of Hyperion / Hyperion the Sun-god|; but he took away from them (lit. for them) the day of homecoming. Of those things, O goddess, daughter of Zeus, tell us too, from some point (sc. in the story) at least.
1. παθοντες περ πολλον ἀλγος / πολλα ἀλγεα ἐπι τε γαιῃ και ἐπι ποντῳ, ἐτι
ἐλπομεθα εἰς πατριδα ἡμετερην ἐλευσεσθαι, και τῃ οἰκησειν παλιν ἐν εἰρηνῃ.
2. ξεινοι τινες οἰκον ὀλεσ(σ)αν και πασας βοας ἀφε(ι)λοντο, ἀλλ οὐδ ὧς γυνη μευ και δυο θυγατερες τλησαν κεινην γαιαν λειπεμεναι / λιπεμεναι τῃ παντες γεγαεμεν.
3. μητερες μεγαλως χαρησαν ἠματι νοστιμῳ υἱεων σφετερων ἀπο / ἐκ πολεμοιο.
"Niuna poesia si accosta piω dell' Omerica all' eternitΰ."
(Tasso, in Cesarotti, Opere, vol. 6, t. 1, p. 240)
NB. The text now skips from Odyssey 1.10 to 9.82.
From there I was borne for nine days by deadly winds over (ἐπι + acc. indicates motion over or on something.) the fish-swarming sea. But on the tenth (sc. ἡμερῃ = day) we landed on the country of the Lotus-eaters, (they) who eat a food (made) of flowers.
1. νυν (μεν) νεων ἐπιβηωμεν, ἀταρ τηνδε γαιαν μη λιπωμεν ὀφρα ἑτα(ι)ροι
(ἡμετεροι) εἰδαρ γλυκυ φερωσι / ἐνεικωσι το / ὅ ἀπο Λωτοφαγων (ε)δεξαμεθα.
2. ἐννημαρ (ἐ)κειμην ἐν ὀλοῃ νουσῳ, μεγιστα πασχων ἀλγεα, οὐδε δυνατος ἠα ἢ / οὐτε ἐσθιειν ἢ / οὐτε πινειν.
3. ἀνθρωποι χρυσον μευ και παντα ἀλλα ἀν ἀφαιρεοιντο / ἀφε(ι)λοιντο· ἀταρ οὐ ποτε τις ἀπο ἐμειο αἱρησει χρηματα μευ φιλτατα, ἀληθειης ἀγαπην και ψυχης εἰρηνην.
"None like Homer have the world ensphered:
(Chapman, Sonnet to the Earl of Salisbury)
There / then we went upon the mainland and drew water for ourselves (mid.), and (my) comrades quickly took for themselves (mid.) a meal alongside the swift ships.
Corrigendum: The Note in para. c omits the Greek: ἦλθομεν, εἴ τι ἡμῖν πόροις.
1. γιγνωσκω ὑμεας κτειναι βοας μουνον ὁπως εἰδαρ ἐχοιτε· οὐ δε θεμις ἠεν· οὐ
γαρ ὑμεων ἠσαν ἀλλα ἀστεος.
2. χειρε ἀειρων / ἀειρας και ὀφθαλμω προς οὐρανον, μακρως εὐξατο, αἰτεων θεους ῥυεσθαι θυγατ(ε)ρα ἑην και δυω υἱεας ἀπο παντος κακου σωματος ἠ ψυχης.
3. ταχεως τευχετε / τευξατε μεγα δειπνον και πολλον οἰνον ἀφυσσετε / ἀφυσ(σ)ατε· πολλοι γαρ ξεινοι τε φιλοι τε παρεσσονται.
|"I can no more believe old Homer blind
Than those who say the sun hath never shined;
The age wherein he lived was dark, but he
Could not want sight who taught the world to see."
(Sir John Denham, Progress of Learning, 1.61-64)
1. That Odysseus was a resourceful man (line 1); famed for his part in the sack
of Troy (line 2); possessed of an inquisitive mind, ever learning
from experience (line 3); genuinely concerned for the lives of his comrades (lines
5-6); and prudent, at least by implicit contrast with the alleged recklessness of
his men (lines 7-9).
2. That the tale will relate Odysseus's wandering via many cities (lines 2-3); his sufferings during a long sea voyage home (lines 4-5); and the eventual death of his companions by divine punishment (lines 6-9).
3. Their eating of the cattle of the Sun-god (lines 8-9).
4. Their recklessness and folly (lines 7-8).
5. The Muse (line 1), i.e. the goddess of epic verse, who is also Zeus's daughter (line 10).
6. (i) Odysseus is driven by the winds to Thrace, where he sacks a town of the Cicones, allies of Troy, but subsequently loses many of his men; (ii) a storm drives him for nine days towards the land of the Lotus-eaters. (See Section 455.)
7. (a) n. acc. pl. as adv.
(b) 1 decl. voc. sg.
(c) aor. pass. ind. 3 sg.
(d) 3 decl. n. acc. pl. (direct object)
(e) 3 aor. act. ind. 3 sg.
(f) m. nom. sg. of ὁ, ἡ, το
(g) f. acc. sg. of ἑός, -ή, -όν (with ψυχὴν)
(h) 1 aor. mid. ind. 3 sg.
(i) impf. act. ind. 3 pl.
(j) 1 decl. voc. sg.
(k) 2 aor. act. impt. 2 sg.
(l) impf. pass. ind. 1 sg.
(m) m. acc. sg. (with πόντον)
(n) 1 decl. gen. sg. (after ἐπέβημεν)
(o) f. dat. pl. (with νηυσὶν)
8. The dual number signifies two or a pair. In the nominative and accusative, 2nd declension duals add -ω to the stem, and 3rd declension duals add -ε.
9. (a) ῥυεο ἡμεας / ἀμμε, (ὠ) Ἀπολλον, και φαινε (ἡμιν / ἀμμιν) ὁδον οἰκονδε (ἀγουσαν) ἀπο Τροιης ἐπι / προς πατριδα (ἡμεων).
(b) μη φαγετε κεινο εἰδαρ· γλυκυ περ ἐον ὀλοον ἐστιν.
(c) οὐ ποτε βοας και μηλα ἑωρακεα / ἑωρακη οὑτως μεγαλα καλα τε ὡς τῃδε. (NB. When adjectives apply to multiple genders, the neuter takes precedence.)
(d) εἰ ἀρειον (ἐ)μαχεσ(σ)ασθε, οὐκ ἀν ἀστυ ἡμετερον ὀλεσ(σ)αν οὐδε ἀπενεικαν / ἀφε(ι)λοντο χρηματα ἡμεων παντα ἐν ταχειῃσι / θοῃσι νηυσι ἐπι / προς γαιαν ἀφ ἥς οὐ ποτε τα παλιν δεξομεθα.
(e) θανε αὐτῳ ἠματι νοστιμῳ.
|"Look once more . . .
Where on the Aegean shore a City stands
Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil,
Athens, the eye of Greece, Mother of Arts
And Eloquence, native to famous wits
Or hospitable, . . .
There thou shalt hear and learn the secret power
Of harmony in tones and numbers hit
By voice or hand, and various measur'd verse,
Aeolian charms and Dorian Lyric Odes,
And his who gave them breath, but higher sung,
Blind Melesigenes, thence Homer call'd,
Whose Poem Phoebus challeng'd for his own."
(Milton, Paradise Regained, 4.240 ff.)
But when we had partaken of food and drink, then (δη simply emphasizes τοτε) I sent forth companions to go and learn (lit. going, to learn) who the men were (here) eating bread upon the earth, having picked out two men (and) having at the same time sent (as a companion) a third as a herald / runner.
Corrigendum: The Note for line 18 should read: "review Section 465."
Corrigenda: (i) διδῶσ(θα) (pres. subj. act. 2 sg.) should read διδῷσ(θα), with iota subscript; (ii) τιθῆ(σι) (pres. subj. act. 3 sg.) should read τιθῇ(σι), with iota subscript.
1. του / ἑο δ ἑταιροι ἐκβαντες Λωτοφαγους εὑρον / ηὑρον ἐπι γαιῃ κειμενους
και σιτοιο τευ πατεομενους / πατευμενους τον / ὅν οὐδεις ἡμεων (πω) ποτε
2. ἀνδρε δυω ἀγαθω κρινας, ἀπανευθε νηων προηκεν.
3. εἰπον μιν δυω παιδε ἡμιν (ὡς) ἑτα(ι)ρω ὀπασσεμεν.
|"Homer is the most perfect model of epic poetry; and he alone, as Aristotle says, deserves the name of Poet. Certainly, no man ever had a more masterful genius."|
(Rιnι Rapin, Critical Essays)
And they, proceeding quickly, mingled with the lotus-eating men; nor then did the Lotus-eaters contrive destruction for our comrades, but gave them to partake of the lotus.
1. μη σφι μισγωμεθα· κακον τι γαρ κε μηδοιντο ἡμιν ἢ ἡμετεροισι φιλοισιν.
2. ἐμοι ποτε εἰπε τίς / ὅς τις οἱ ποροι / πορε τον καλον λωτον, ἀλλα οὐκετι γιγνωσκω.
3. ὅς τις βουλευῃ / μηδηται ἀλλοις ὀλεθρον, και ἕ αὐτον ἀδικε(ε)ι, ὀλεσας ἑης ψυχης εἰρηνην.
|"In Epic Poetry, no man ought to dispute the authority of Homer, who gave the first being to that masterpiece of art, and endued it with such perfection in all its parts that nothing was wanting to its excellency. Virgil, therefore, and those very few who have succeeded him, endeavoured not to introduce, or innovate, anything in a design already perfected, but imitated the plan of the inventor; and are only so far true heroic poets as they have built on the foundations of Homer."|
(Dryden, Musical Drama)
But whichever of them ate the honey-sweet fruit of the lotus no longer wished to bring back news or to return, but they desired / preferred to stay there, feeding upon the lotus, among the lotus-eating men and to forget (their) homercoming / journey home.
1. εἰ μη φαγον τοδε μελιηδες εἰδαρ, οὐ κε λαθοντο νοστου εἰς πατριδα.
2. ὁτε τις λωτοιο πατεοιτο, οὐ ποτε ἠθελε νεεσθαι προς ἑταιρους (ἑους / ἕο) οὐδε / ἢ ἀναβαινειν παλιν ἐπι νεων.
3. εἰ τις βουλοιτο τῃ μενειν μετα τοις φιλοισι ζεινοις, παντες (ἐ)πειραομεν μιν πειθεμεν μη λανθανεσθαι πατρος τε μητρος τε και οἰκου.
|"'Tis said that Homer, matchless in his art,
Stole heavenly charms wherewith to snare the heart;
His works indeed vast treasures do unfold,
And whatsoe'er he touches turns to gold.
He always pleases, and can never tire. . . .
To love his writings is a kind of praise."
(Boileau, L'Art Poιtique, 722-736,
I (myself) led them by force weeping to the ships, and in the hollow ships I bound (them), having dragged (them) under the rowers' benches; but those other loyal comrades I ordered to hurry and (lit. hurrying) to board (lit. go upon) the swift ships, lest anyone somehow / perchance eating of the lotus should forget (his) homecoming. (NB. Here μὲν seems purely anticipatory: i.e. first (μὲν) I did this, and next (δὲ) I did this.)
1. δησειε σφεων χειρας και θειη (σφεας) ἐν ἑῃ νηι ὠκειῃ / θοῃ, ὀφρα παλιν
γιγνωνται ἐριηρες και ἀγαθοι ἑταιροι.
2. πατηρ τις ποροι κε λιθον ἑῳ υἱῳ σιτον αἰτεοντι; χρη ἀμμε πιστευειν τοις οἵ ἡμεας φιλεουσιν.
3. ὅτε οἱ δοιην εἰδαρ τι ἢ μελιηδεα οἰνον, αἰει βαλλε ἡμισυ εἰς πυρ ὡς δωρον θεῳ τῷ / τέῳ.
|"Read Homer once and you can read no more,
For all books else appear so mean, so poor,
Verse will seem prose; but still persist to read,
And Homer will be all the books you need!"
(Sheffield, Essay on Poetry)
And they quickly embarked (lit. went in) and sat at the oar-locks, and sitting in rows |they struck the grey sea / they beat the sea white| with (their) oars.
1. ὅτε (ἀν) ἑξης ἑζωνται ἐπι κληισι, ἁλα τυπτουσι πολιην μακροις ἐρετμοις.
2. εἰ εἰδαρ θηκαν ὑπο αὐτῃσι πετρῃσι ὡς πρωτον, γνων κε που ἠεν / εἰη και τευξα κε σφι δειπνον. (See 214.2 for the options of using either the indicative or optative in indirect questions after a secondary tense.)
3. πας τις ὅς δοιη (past general construction) σφιν εἰδαρ κεινο μελιηδες μεν ὀλοον δε, ἐμηδετο (αὐ)τοις ἀλγος (τε) και ὀλεθρον.
|"Great Homer too appears, of daring wing,
Parent of song!"
(Thompson, The Seasons: Winter)
1. ἰοντεσσι / ἰουσι
8. ὠκεσι / ὠκεεσσι
1. Because they were so drugged by the lotus that they refused to leave.
3. Very hospitably.
4. He feared lest they all be similarly drugged and forget their journey home.
5. Pres. act. opt. 3 pl. of εἰμι; indirect question in optative after secondary tense (see 214.2).
6. κηρυκα = 3 decl. m. acc. sg. of κηρυξ; final α is elided and κ becomes χ before rough breathing (see 423e).
7. μηδοντο = impf. mid. ind. 3 pl. of μηδομαι; final ο is elided and τ becomes θ before rough breathing (see 423e).
8. 2 decl. f. gen. pl. of νηύς; ἐπιβαίνω takes gen.
9. Pres. mid. subj. 3 sg. of λανθάνομαι; purpose clauses sometimes use subj. instead of opt. after secondary tense verbs (see 98b).
10. 2 decl. n. dat. pl. of ἐρετμόν; instrumental dat.
1. θειμεν . . . δοιης
2. φαγοιεν . . . οἰκεοιεν
3. φανειη . . . προιει
4. θηκε . . . γλαφυρην πετρην
5. ᾐδης / γνως . . . δος
|". . . the great Homer, sire of tuneful
And prototype of all that soar'd sublime."
NB. The text now skips from Odyssey 9.104 to 9.170.
But when rosy-fingered Dawn, the early-born, appeared, right then, having set up (mid.) a general assembly, I said among them all:
"The rest of you, trusty companions of mine (lit. to me), now stay here; but I, going with my ship and my companions, will make trial (mid., with same meaning as act.) of these men (to discover) who they are . . ."
Additional Note: For the unknown vocabulary in these two examples see (i) Section 592 and (ii) Section 508.
1. παντες ἐλπωμεθα ἠοα ἠματος ἀρειονος φανεεσθαι ἀνθρωποισι πολλα ἀλγεα και
κακα τουδε πολεμοιο παθοντεσσι / παθουσιν.
2. εἰ (κεν) ἀλλοι μενοιεν και μαχεοιντο εἱνεκα ἡμετερης πατριδος, τλαοις / τλαιης (ἀν) συ κακος φαινεσθαι / φανηναι και κευθεσθαι / κυθεσθαι μετα γυναιξι τε παιδεσσι / παισι τε;
3. εἰ αἰει πειρησαμεν μηκεος και κρατεος των δενδρεων τοισι / οἵσι (ἐ)μελλομεν νηας ἡμεων τευχεμεν, νηες που ἀν ἠσαν / (ἐ)γενοντο μειζονες τε και κρατερωτεραι και θασσονες ἢ νυν εἰσιν.
|"Every novel is a debtor to Homer."|
(Ralph Waldo Emerson, Uses of Great Men)
". . . whether, then, those men (are) in fact haughty and savage and not just, or (are) hospitable (lit. stranger-loving) and possess a god-fearing mind (possessive dative construction)." Having spoken thus, I boarded (lit. went on) the ship, and I bade (my) companions themselves both to embark (lit. go up) and loose up the stern-cables.
1. μιμνον ἐγγυς ἀστεος, ἱνα πυθοιμην ἠ οἱδε (ἀνθρωποι) εἰεν σχετλιοι και σφι
κηρα εἰη ἀγρια, ἠε δικαιοι και ἀρετην φιλεοντες.
2. αὐτοι μεν αἰψα νεων ἐπιβημεν μακραων και ἑζομεθα ἑξης ἐπι κληισι, ἀλλους δε κεκλετο μηλα λαβοντας φερειν / ἐνεικαι προς ἐσθλον ἀνακτα.
3. χρη παντας βροτους ἀλγος πασχειν και θανατον· τλαειν (αὐ)τα χαλεπον ἐστιν ἀλλα ἐσθλον πελεται.
|"It is to the strength of his amazing imagination that we are able to attribute that unequalled fire and rapture which is so forcible in Homer that no man of a true poetical spirit is master of himself while he reads him."|
(Pope, Preface to Translation of Iliad)
And they quickly came aboard (lit. went in) and seated themselves by the oar-locks, and sitting in rows they |struck the grey sea / beat the sea white| with (their) oars. But when (δη simply emphasizes ὁτε) we reached that place, which was (lit. being) nearby, there on the edge close by the sea we saw a cave, high (and) roofed over with laurels. And many flocks, both sheep and goats, used to spend the night there.
1. ἐν εὐρει χωρῳ ἀγχι θαλασσης, ἀφικομεθα σπεος ὑψηλοτατον ἐν ᾥ (ε)ἰδομεν
πολλους ὀις τε και βοας και αἰγας ἀγριους.
2. οὐ γνω / οὐκ ᾐδη ποιμενα τινα αἰει φοιταειν / φοιταοντα τῃδε δια καλους ὀις πολιους, ὁπως μη τις σφεας ἀδικεῃ / ἀδικησῃ.
3. ὁτε νοεοι ῥοδοδακτυλον Ἠοα φαινεσθαι ἀνα ποντον, λαβων ὀλιγον ὀιν, τον / ὅν περι φιλεε, (ἐ)τιθει ἐπι σπεος / σπηος θυρῃ.
|"Be Homer's words your study and delight,
Read them by day, and meditate by night,
Thence form your judgments, thence your maxims bring,
And trace the Muses upward to their spring."
(Pope, Essay on Criticism)
Corrigendum: For ἀπόπροσθεν read ἀπόπροθεν (without the sigma).
Corrigendum: The genitive ending of vocabulary item κατωρυχής should read -ες.
And round about (it) a high enclosure had been built with stones embedded in the ground and extensive pine-trees and lofty-leaved oaks. And there a monstrous man spent the night, who (ῥα simply stresses the relative pronoun) used to shepherd those flocks alone far away; nor was he accustomed to go among others, but, living (lit. being) apart, acknowledged no law (lit. knew lawless things).
1. κατα τα ἑταιροι (ἡμετεροι) λεγουσιν, οἱδε πελωριοι ποιμενες ἀποπροθεν
μιμνον / μιμνεσκον, και οὐκ ἐθελον φιλεεσθαι οὐδε / ἢ και ὀφθηναι ὑπο βροτων τοι
/ οἵ βαινουσιν ἐπι εὐρειης θαλασσης ἐν νηυσιν γλαφυρῃσιν.
2. ἐῳκει δενδρεῳ ὑψηλῳ το / ὅ θεοι θηκαν οἰον ἐπι ὑψηλῃ πετρῃ, τῃ φαινεται ἀνθρωποισιν ἀποπροθεν ἐν μεσ(σ)ῳ ποντῳ.
3. ὅτε δειδοιμεν κακον τι γενησεσθαι, εὐχομεθα Ἀπολλωνι, ὁ δε / και αὐτος αἰει ἡμεας (ἐ)ῥυετο, ὡς εὐ γιγνωσκων / εἰδως τίνα ἐχοιμεν ἀναγκην.
|"Nation after nation, and century after century, has been able to do little more than transpose Homer's incidents, new-name his characters, and paraphrase his sentiments."|
(Dr. Samuel Johnson, Preface to Shakespeare)
For (preceded, as often in Homer, by a semantically redundant και) he was (lit. he had been created) a monstrous marvel, and nor was he like unto a bread-eating man (in fact), but rather to a woody crag of the high mountains, which (τε is often appended to relative pronouns without altering the meaning) appears alone (apart) from the others.
Then indeed I ordered those other trusty comrades to remain there by the ship and to guard the ship.
1. τῃ μιμνε ποιμην ἱνα ῥυοιτο ἀρνειους και αἰγας κευθομενους ἐν μεγαλῳ σπηι
ἐν μεσσῳ ὀρει.
2. ὁτε (ἀν) νηυς φανῃ, χαιρομεν· αἰει γαρ δειδομεν μη δια ὀμβρους και μεγαλους ἀνεμους ἁμαρτανῃ / ἁμαρτῃ τουδε ὀλιγου χωρου.
3. οὐδεις ἡμων γνω / ᾐδη ἦ χρυσον φιλῳ τεῳ δοιεν ἠε ὑπο θυρεον οἰκου τευ θειεν, τῃ μη τις μιν εὑροι (ἀν).
|"Non θ possible, non dirς ad un poeta, ma ad
uom mortale d'ottener una fama piω stabile di quella che ottenne Omero."
"It is impossible, not only for any poet but for any mere mortal, to gain a fame more widespread or more permanent than Homer's."
(Melchior Cesarotti, Storie della Riputazione d'Omero)
1. I was / they were speaking among them all.
2. πειραω (whether used in active or middle voice) takes the genitive.
3. κελευω, I command, is followed by the infinitive.
4. Nor was he like to a man.
5. Dative of possession.
1. τῃδε μενωμεν ὀφρα τις ἐρχηται ὅς κε ὁδον ἡμιν φηνειε.
2. ἐρομεθα εἰ αἱδε νηες ἑο εἰεν, και εἰ τας τευξειεν αὐτος.
1. Ἠοα / Ἠω
4. αἰγεσσι / αἰξι
5. ἀγριοις / ἀγριοισι
6. σπεα / σπηα
8. the mountains (dat. pl.)
1. Key points for consideration (67 words) are as follows:
- Calling his men together at dawn, Odysseus orders them to stay put while he and his crewmates investigate the natives across the water.
- Sailing to the nearby land, they notice a high cave, animal pen, and massive courtyard.
- The owner, a huge, antisocial monster, sleeps there at night, but is away pasturing his flocks by day.
- Odysseus orders his main crew to stay and guard the ship.
2. Consider the following evidence in Lessons 73-77:
- Odysseus is shown as the sole decision-maker.
- He is an effective communicator, twice informing his crew of his decisions and telling them what they must do.
- He leads from the front (at least on this occasion).
- He deploys his resources prudently, minimizing risks and taking care not to "burn his bridges".
- He is highly inquisitive and observes his surroundings closely.
3. General reasons might include the following:
- Concrete nouns are employed throughout.
- The narrative is highly objective. (E.g. a subjective element like the initial uncertainty concerning the cave-owner's identity is wholly dispensed with.)
- Direct speech is deployed rather than indirect.
- The narrative moves swiftly.
- Sentences are clear and uncomplex.
- Affectation (if such there be, at least to a modern reader) would doubtless be argued on the basis of Homer's "overuse" of epithets and similes.
"Much have I travell'd in the realms of gold,
And many goodly states and kingdoms seen;
Round many western islands have I been
Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold.
Oft of one wide expanse had I been told
That deep-brow'd Homer ruled as his demesne;
Yet did I never breathe its pure serene
Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold;
Then felt I like some watcher of the skies
When a new planet swims into his ken;
Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes
He stared at the Pacific and all his men
Look'd at each other with a wild surmise
Silent, upon a peak in Darien."
(Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer)
And (αὐταρ / ἀταρ are often used as transitional rather than adversative particles) I, having chosen the twelve best of (my) companions, set out; and I had a goatskin bag of sweet dark wine, which Maron the son of Euanthes and priest of Apollo, who had guarded Ismarus gave me because we protected him, along with his child and wife, out of reverence; for he dwelt in the wooded sacred grove of Phoebus Apollo. And he gave me splendid gifts.
1. ἐπει ἱερον ἀνδρα ἁζομεθα και τοιο ζωην σωσαμεν, δωκε ἡμιν ἀσκον μεγαν
μελιηδεος οἰνου, τῳ / ᾡ μεγαλως ἡδομην.
2. ὁτε (κεν) αἰτεητε, δεξεσθε δωρον ἀγλαωτατον, το / ὅ (ἐ)σωζον ὑμιν ὀφρα κεν ἀφικοιτε.
3. σχετλιος τις, παιδων ἀμαξαν ἑλων ἠδε ὑψοσε ἀειρας, ἀπανευθε την / μιν εἰς ποταμον ἡκεν.
"Standing aloof in giant ignorance,
Of thee I hear and of the Cyclades,
As one who sits ashore and longs perchance
To visit dolphin-coral in deep seas."
(Keats, To Homer)
Of well wrought gold he gave me seven talents, and he gave me a mixing bowl all of silver, and then (he gave me) wine, having drawn (it) in twelve amphoras all-told, a sweet unmixed (wine), a drink divine. Not one of the manservants nor of the maids in the house knew of it, but he himself and his dear wife and one housekeeper only.
1. εἰ σοφωτερος ἠεν, θηκεν ἀν ἡδυν μεν κρατερον δε οἰνον εἰς κεινον ἀγλαον
μελανα κρητηρα ὅς παρα οἱ κειτο, και κε τῳ μιξεν ἑπτα ὑδατος μετρα.
2. ἐν κεινῳ μεγαλῳ ὀρει εὑρομεν σπεος γλαφυρον πελωριον, τῃ / ἐν ᾡ (ἐ)κρυπτετο ἀγλαωτατος χρυσου θησαυρος.
Erst die Gesundheit des Mannes, der, endlich von Namen
Kόhn uns befreiend, uns auch ruft in die vollere Bahn.
Denn wer wagte mit Gφttern den Kampf? und wer mit dem Einem?
Doch Homeride zu sein, auch nur als letzter, ist schφn.
But first a toast to Homer, who boldly sets our spirit free
(Goethe, Hermann und Dorothea)
And whenever (past general construction) they drank that honey-sweet red wine, he would fill (lit. having filled) one cup and pour (it) into / over twenty measures of water, and a sweet fragrance would emanate from the mixing bowl, (quite) heavenly; then truly it would have been no friendly / sociable thing to abstain. I was carrying, having filled (it), a large bag of that (wine), and also provisions in a sack. For my (μοι = dative of possession) bold spirit immediately supposed / surmised that a man would come upon (us) arrayed in mighty strength, a savage (man), well versed in (lit. knowing) neither rights nor laws.
1. ἀπεχεσθαι αἰσχραων ἡδονων και τλαειν / τληναι πονον ἀγηνορι θυμῳ ἀρειον
ἐστιν ἢ χρυσον χεειν ἢ ἀνακτα γενεσθαι πολλαων βασιλειαων.
2. ὁτε κεν ἱκανοιμι προς τονδε νηον ἱερωτατον, εἰρηνη θεσπεσιη κηρ ἐμον ἐμπλησαι ἐδοκει.
3. τίς ἀν ὀιετο ἀμμε στησεσθαι ἀγχι σπηος ἀνερος οὐτε θεμιστα(ς) ἁζομενου οὐτε ἀληθειην εἰδοτος;
". . . that blind bard, who on the Chian stand
By those deep sounds possessed with inward light,
Beheld the Iliad and the Odyssey
Rise to the swelling of the voiceful sea."
(Coleridge, Fancy in Nubibus)
Swiftly we arrived at the cave, and we did not find him within, but he was tending (his) fat flocks in the pasture. Going into the cave, we gazed in wonder at each thing (there). The wicker baskets were laden with cheeses while the pens were crowded with lambs and kids; and all the pails were brimming with whey.
1. καρπαλιμως οὐν βηωμεν εἰς ἀντρον / σπεος ἱνα ἰδωμεν σηκους |ἐνδον
τετυγμενα / τοι ἐνδον τετυχαται| ἀρνειῳ ἠδε ὀιεσσι πιοσιν.
2. οὐ πιστευσαμεν ἀνθρωπῳ ὅς ἡμιν ἐννεπε ἑην θυγατερα ἐννημαρ μουνον τυρον φαγε(ε)ιν και τον ἐτι ποθεειν.
3. ὠ σχετλιη γυναι, πως τλης παιδε λιπειν ἐπι θυρῃ ξεινοιο οἰκου, τῃ ἀν ὀλοντο εἰ μη τω δεξατο προφρων;
"Strongly it bears us along the swelling and limitless
Nothing before and nothing behind but the sky and the ocean."
(Coleridge, The Homeric Hexameter)
(My) companions then first of all begged me in words that (we), selecting from the cheeses, (should) go back (to the ship), but then (they begged) that (we), having quickly driven the kids and lambs out of the pens to the swift ship, (should) sail out upon the briny water. But I would not be persuaded and truly it would have been much better (if I had)! that I might both see him and (see) whether he might give me gifts of hospitality. Nor, mark you (ἀρα), when he appeared (lit. having appeared), was he going to prove (lit. to be) a welcome sight (lit. charming) to (my) comrades.
1. ἐμος ἐριηρος ἑταιρος με λισσετο / λισατο καρπαλιμως παλιν φυγειν ἐπι /
προς νεας, ἀλλα ἐγων ἐθελον γνωναι εἰ πελωριος ποιμην Δια ἁζοιτο, ξεινων φιλον,
και ἡμιν ξεινια δοιη.
2. εἰ τυρους τινας και ὀις αἰνυμεθα και αὐτικα προς ἁλμυρην θαλασσαν νεομεθα, ἦ πολεες ἐμων φιλων οὐκ ἀν ὀλοντο ἐν ἀγριῳ σπηι / ἀντρῳ.
3. πλειστοι ἀνθρωπων πολυ κακωτεροι δοκεουσι ἐμμεν ἤ εἰσιν, και πολεες σφεων οἵ σε ἀδικεουσι σοι ἀγαθον τι πειραουσι φερειν.
"There is a fascination in the mere sound of articulated
breath. . . . What do you say to this line of Homer as a piece of poetical
῎Αιγλη παμφανόωσα δι αἰθέρος οὐρανὸν ἷκε
That Greek line has nearly every consonantal and vowel sound in the language. . . . Tell me that old Homer did not roll his sightless eyeballs about with delight, as he thundered out these ringing syllables!"
(Oliver Wendell Holmes, The Poet at the Breakfast Table)
2. of well-made
5. you (sg.) were refraining / holding back
7. to pour (aor.)
9. to many (m.-n.)
10. πιοσι / πιονεσσι
1. which he gave to me
2. he gave splendid gifts
3. nor did anyone know him / it
4. nor did we find him within
5. it would have been better
1. pres. act. opt. 3 pl. Maron and his household
2. 1 pers. pron. dat. sg. Odysseus
3. impf. act. ind. 3 sg. Maron
4. aor. act. opt. 3 sg. Cyclops
1. On Ismarus, from Maron (a priest of Apollo) in gratitude for the protection Odysseus gave him and his family.
2. Its extraordinary potency and fragrance.
3. As a friendship offering.
4. οὐκ ἀν ἠεν ἡδυ / φιλον
τοῡ φρν | μπλη̄ | σᾱς ᾱσ | κν μγᾰν, | ν δ καῐ | ῃ̄ᾰ
κω̄ρῠκῳ̆· | αῡτῐκᾰ | γᾱρ μοῑ | οῑσᾰτ | θῡμς ᾰγ | η̄νω̄ρ
ᾱνδρ᾽ π | λεῡσσ | θαῑ μγᾰ | λη̄ν πῐ | εῑμνν | ᾱλκη̄ν,
ᾱγρῐν, | οῡτ δῐ | κᾱς εῡ | εῑδτᾰ | οῡτ θ | μῑστᾱς.
NB. Should these four lines appear incorrectly (e.g. due to your browser lacking the Vusillus or Athena fonts), click here to view an image instead.
|"A man who has not read Homer is like a man who has never seen the ocean. There is a vast and famous object of which he has no idea."|
(Walter Bagehot, Literary Studies)
And then, having kindled a fire, we offered sacrifice, and ourselves too, taking (some) of the cheeses, ate, and sitting inside we awaited him, until he came (up), herding (his flock). He was carrying a mighty weight of dry wood, that it might be useful to him for supper. Hurling (it) inside the cave he caused a din; and we, fearing, rushed back into the interior of the cave.
1. (ἐ)λισσομεθα ξεινον σχετλιον τε πελωριον τε θεους ἁζεσθαι μηδε κτεινειν
ἀμμε ὀβριμῳ του / ἑο / ἑῳ κρατει.
2. ἀποσσυντο / ἀπεσσυντο εἰς σπεος / ἀντρον και ἐντοσθεν μιμνον / μενον εἱος (ἐ)πυθοντο ἠ ἀγριος εἰη ἠ ξεινοισι φιλος.
3. θυρεον ὀβριμον ὑπο θυρης ἑλων, ὑψοσε βιῃ πελωριῃ εἰς οὐρανον ἡκεν / βαλεν.
|"Practically the whole of Greek literature was profoundly influenced by Homer's work that rich and inexhaustible spring at which all the writers of Hellas have drunk."|
(Robert Flaceliθre, Literary History of Greece)
And (αὐταρ here is simply a transitional particle rather than an adversative one) he (the enclitic γε simply emphasizes the pronoun) drove (his) fat flocks into the broad cave, all those that he milked, but he left the males, both rams and he-goats, at the door, inside of the deep stockade / courtyard. And then he put in position the great door-stone, having lifted it on high, a mighty (thing); two and twenty excellent four-wheeled wagons would not have lifted it from the ground; so great a towering rock did he put in position at the door(s).
1. εἰ ᾐδη / γνω ἡμεας ἐντοσθε σπηος / ἀντροιο εἰναι, και την ὀβριμην πετρην
ὑψοσε ἀειρας ἐπι ἀμμε βαλε, τίς ἡμεων τοτε οὐκ ἀν ὀλετο / ὠλετο ὀλεθρῳ ὠκει /
ταχει / θοῳ / καρπαλιμῳ;
2. ἐλασαν / ἠλασαν παντας ἡμετερους ἀρνειους και πιονα μηλα εἰς ἑπτα μεγαλας γλαφυρας ἀμαξας, και μετα / συν τοις ἀπανευθε φυγον ἐν βαθειῃ εὐεργει νηι προς πατριδα / σφετερην γαιαν.
3. μη φευγωμεν ὡς παιδες κακοι, ἀλλ ἱστωμεθα τῃδε και μαχ(ε)ωμεθα εἱνεκα ψυχαων ἡμετεραων.
"That wit and joy might find a tongue,
And earth grow civil, Homer sung."
And sitting down, he milked the sheep and bleating goats, all in due measure, and set (her) young one under each. Having forthwith curdled half of the white milk, he put (it) down / stored (it) away in woven baskets, having collected (it) (mid.), but (the remaining) half on the other hand he stood in pails so that it might be (there) for him to take and (lit. having taken to) drink and so that it might serve him for supper. But when (δη simply emphasizes ἐπει) he had quickly finished his tasks, he then both lit a fire and saw (us), and he asked us:
1. κρατερον (ἠδε) βαθυν τευξας σηκον ἑοισι ἀρνειοις τε αἰξι τε, παντα κατα
μοιραν, ποιμην ὀβριμος ἠλασε ἑα πιονα λευκα μηλα ἐντοσθεν.
2. ἑωρακατε ποτε μειζονα ἢ ἀγλαωτερην ὀιν ἢ ἐκεινην την / ἥν εἰσοραουσι κειμενην συν ἑῳ ἐμβρυῳ οὑτως λευκην τε καλην τε ἐπι γαιῃ μελαινῃ;
3. ἐπει σοφωτατος ἀνθρωπων, οὐδε και παιδων σοφωτατος, οὐ γιγνωσκει / οἰδε παντα, χρη ἀμμε που πειθεσθαι πατ(ε)ρι και μητ(ε)ρι, ὡς ἡμεων σοφωτεροις.
|"I have been reading the first twelve books of the Odyssey, and have begun to receive Homer in earnest. How great his dramatic power is!"|
(Gerald Manley Hopkins)
Corrigendum: Vocabulary item πελωρον should be replaced by πελωρος, -ον, an adjective equivalent in meaning to πελωριος (Section 520). Otherwise line 118 will not be understood correctly.
"Who are you, O strangers? Whence do you sail (over) the watery ways? Is it (see Section 561 for ἠ) somehow (see Section 213 for τι) on business or are you wandering at random, even as pirates over the sea, who wander rsking (their) lives, bringing evil to men of other lands?"
Thus he spoke, and again our heart (ἡμιν = dative of possession) was shattered, fearing (as we did) his deep voice and monstrous self.
1. παν κρατος φυγεν ἀπο ἡμεων μελεων ὁτε ὀβριμῳ φθογγῳ ἀμμε ἐρετο τί
ἀλαοιμεθα (see Section 214.2 for use of opt. here) ἐν νηυσιν ὠκειῃς
ὑπε(ι)ρ βαθεα κελευθα ὑγρης θαλασσης / ἁλος.
2. ἑπτα ἠ πλειονας πεμπε / πεμψον κρατερους ἀγαθους τε ἀνερας αἱρεειν / ἑλειν τους / ἐκεινους ἀγριους βοας και μεγα δειπνον τῃ παρα ποταμῳ ἡμιν τευχειν / τευξαι.
|"Homer presents his thoughts naturally and in a rhythm easy indeed, but mastering our ear with a fullness of power which is irresistible."|
(Matthew Arnold, On Translating Homer)
But even so, in answer (lit. answering), I addressed him with (these words):
"We, you should know (τοι), Achaeans driven off course from Troy by all kinds of winds over the great gulf of the sea, eagerly pressing on homewards, have come another way, other paths. So, I suppose, was Zeus pleased to contrive. We lay claim to be the people / followers of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, whose (δη simply emphasizing rel. pron.) renown is now the greatest under heaven; for so great was the city he sacked and many the peoples he destroyed.
1. Ἀχαιοι, λαοι Ἀγαμεμνονος, ἀριστα ἀμφι Τροιην / Τροιῃ μαχεοντο /
μαχεσ(σ)αντο, ὁπως παλιν οἰκαδε ἐνεικειαν γυναικα κασιγνητου ἀνακτος, ἥ καλλιστη
λεγετο ἐμμεναι πασαων τοτε ἐπι γαιῃ ζωουσαων.
2. προσειπομεν ποιμενα πελωριον ἐπεεσσι μελιηδεσι, του πειραοντες πειθειν / πεισαι σχετλιον ἠτορ και Ἀχαιοις σωζειν / σωσαι ψυχας.
3. εἰ ὑπερ μεγα λαιτμα πλεοιτε ἀπο μιης π(τ)ολιος προς ἀλλην, μαθοιτε (ἀν) Δια ῥυεσθαι ἑους φιλους και παντεσσι / πασι ἑας ἐντολας ἁζομενοισ(ιν) ἀγαθους πεμπεμεν ἀνεμους.
"Here Homer, with the broad suspense
Of thunderous brows, and lips intense
Of garrulous god-innocence."
(Elizabeth Browning, A Vision of Poets)
Corrigendum: ὑψόψε in Question I.3 should read ὑψόσε (Section 533, Lesson 79).
1. ἀποσσυμεθα / ἀπεσσυμεθα
3. on high
5. λαιτμασι / λαιτματεσσι
7. to / for the white (m.-n. dat. pl.)
10. for such as (f. dat. pl.)
15. having burned (m. nom. pl.)
1. until he came (up) herding (his flock)
2. aor. act. opt. 3 pl. potential optative
3. fearing, we rushed back
4. When he rekindled the fire.
5. pres. act. ind. 2 pl. final ε is elided, and τ becomes θ before rough breathing
6. he left the males at the door
7. Put half aside for his supper and curdled the rest for cheese.
8. aor. act. ptc. m. gen. pl. possessive genitive, in irregular apposition with ἡμιν
1. οὐκ ἀν ἀειρειαν
3. ἡμιν (see Line 117; also Section 504)
4. χαλεπην ὁδον / κελευθον
|"Homer's simplicity is by no means mere simplicity of thought, nor, as it is often foolishly called, of nature. It is the simplicity of consummate art, the lasting achievement of poets and the invariable characteristic of the greatest among them."|
(James Russell Lowell, My Study Windows)
But we, on the other hand / for our part, coming (here) by chance, (have) approached your knees, (wondering) if you might provide some gift of hospitality or in some other way give a present which (τε is often appended to relative pronouns without altering the meaning) is the right of strangers. But / Come (ἀλλα enhances the imperative), most noble sir, reverence (αἰδεῖο is a contraction of αἰδεεο, pres. impt. 2 sg.) the gods; we are, you should know (τοι), suppliants. And guest-guarding Zeus (is) the protector of suppliants and strangers, and he (lit. who) goes along together (ἅμα) with reverend strangers."
Thus I spoke, but he at once answered me with a pitiless heart:
1. ἀληθεως σοφοι θεους ἀει αἰδεονται και (τους) λισσονται ὡς ἱκεται, ὀφρα σφι
πορωσιν ὀλβον και μακρον μακαρα τε βιον.
2. εὐρυν κιχοντες ποταμον ὅν οὐ ποτε ἑωρακεμεν, λαον ἀμφι π(τ)ολιν ζωοντα ἐρομεθα εἰ αἰψα ἡμιν δοιεν ὀλιγην νεα και ἐρετμω (dual).
3. ἀληθειην μη ζητεειν τε και φιλεειν, νουσος ἐστιν αἰσχρη ψυχης, την / ἥν παντες ἀλεοιμεθα.
|"The Odyssey is never dull. It is the only long poem that reads of itself."|
(James Russell Lowell, to a friend)
"You are foolish, O stranger, or you have come from afar, if you (lit. who) bid me either to fear or shrink before the gods! For the Cyclopes take no heed of aegis-bearing Zeus nor of the blessed gods, since truly we are much mightier (than they); nor would I, to avoid (lit. avoiding) the enmity of Zeus, spare either you or (your) companions, unless (my own) spirit should bid me. But tell me where you left (lit. had) (your) well-wrought ship in coming (here), whether perchance on the far shore or even close by, so that I may know."
1. οὐτε φυγε(ε)ιν δυναμεθα προς ἑτα(ι)ρους οὐτε οἰκαδε πλευσαι, ὁτι Κυκλωψ
κατειληλουθει ἀσσον θαλασσης και στας σχεδον ἀγριος τε νηλεης τε μεγιστας βαλλε
πετρας ἐπι εὐεργεας ἡμεων νεας.
2. ἐννεππε μοι, ἐφη, πως δικαιως ἐλπεαι ἀλλους σε αἰδεεσθαι, ὅς αὐτος οὐκ ἐθελεις προφρων ἁζεσθαι αἰγιοχον Δια και μακαρας θεους.
3. ὁτε (ἀν) φιλεωμεν τους οἵ ἀμμε φιλεουσι, οὐδεν μεγα ἐρδομεν· ἀλλα εἰ / ἢν φιλεωμεν τους οἵ ἀμμε μισεουσι, τοτε ἐσθλοι και ἀγλαοι εἰμεν.
|". . . the strong-wing'd music of Homer!"|
(Tennyson, On Translations of Homer)
Corrigendum: απὺν in line 147 should read αἰπὺν.
Thus he spoke, trying to get information, and he did not deceive me, I who knew many things, but I addressed him in reply with crafty words:
"My ship (dative of possession) Poseidon the earth-shaker did break in pieces, hurling (it) against the rocks upon the boundaries of your land, having driven it into the headland; and the wind bore (us) from the deep; but I with these (others) escaped sheer destruction."
Thus I spoke, and he, with pitiless heart, answered me nothing, but he (γε simply emphasizing the pronoun), having sprung up, stretched out (his) hands upon (my) comrades, and having seized two together he smashed (them) down upon the ground like (τε often follows ὥς in similes) puppies. And (their) brain(s) poured out to the ground, and wet the earth.
1. ὀφρα ἀλευαιτο αἰπυν ὀλεθρον, λεγε / εἰπε πελωριῳ ποιμενι Ποσειδαωνα ἑο /
ἑην νεα μαρψαντα βαλε(ε)ιν προς πετρῃσι ἀπανευθε ἐπι πειρατεσσι γαιης.
2. κατα δικην / θεμιστα ἀνθρωπων τοτε ζωοντων, ὁτε τις εὐχοιτο (see Section 480 for the past general construction), αἰει χειρε προς οὐρανον ἀειρε, ἱνα φαινοι βροτους παντα ἀγαθα προς θεων δεχεσθαι.
3. μηδεν μοι ἀμειβοιτο, ἀλλα αὐτικα με κτεινοι, ὁπως μη ἰδω ἀλγεα και θανατον πλειονων μευ φιλων ἑτα(ι)ρων.
|"To read Homer's thoughts is to wander in a world abounding with freshness."|
(F. W. Newman, Homeric Translation)
Corrigendum: Vocabulary item ταμνω should be given as "I cut, I sever" rather than "I divide, I tear".
And having cut them through (δια, a separated prefix of ταμνω) limb from limb, he prepared supper for himself (mid. voice); and, just like a mountain-bred lion, he ate and did not leave behind the entrails and the flesh and the marrowy bones. And we, weeping, held up (our) hands to Zeus, seeing the cruel deeds; and helplessness held / possessed (our) spirit(s). But when the Cyclops had filled (mid.) his great belly (by) eating human flesh and drinking undiluted milk on top of that, he lay down inside the cave, having stretched himself out (mid.) among (lit. through) the flocks.
1. κλαυσαμεν ὁραοντες / ὁτε ἰδομεν σχετλιον Κυκλωπα, τῃ ἐν σπηι / ἀντρῳ
ἡμενον μετα ἑοισι ὀιεσσι, μαρπτειν / μαρψαι νηλει θυμῳ δυω ἐριηρε ἑταιρω
2. εἰσοραων μιν ὁπλιζοντα δορπον κρεων ἀνδρομεων και ὀστεων, ἠθελον ἐρυειν ξιφος ἐμον ὀλοον παρα μηρου και ἑ κτειναι.
3. εἰπε μοι ὁπῃ εὑρες ἑταιρους σευ οὑτως πολλους τε και ἀνδρειους· ἀναξ ἐσσι / εἰς μακαρ, ὠ φιλε.
|"Without doubt, in his influence over future mankind, Homer is eminently the Greek of Greeks: if I were to associate any one with him it would be Herodotus. . . . But Homer is the great type, and the more notable once because of his influence on Virgil, and, through him, on Dante and all the after ages."|
(Ruskin, Modern Painters)
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